Selbermach Samstag XXXVI

Welche Themen interessieren euch, welche Studien fandet ihr besonders interessant in der Woche, welche Neuigkeiten gibt es, die interessant für eine Diskussion wären und was beschäftigt euch gerade?

Welche interessanten Artikel gibt es auf euren Blogs oder auf den Blogs anderer? Welches Thema sollte noch im Blog diskutiert werden?

Gemeinsamkeiten im Verhalten aller Menschen („Human Universals“)

Steven Pinker hat in seinem Buch „The Blank Slate“ eine Liste der Gemeinsamkeiten im Verhalten der Menschen weltweit zitiert, die aus dem Bucgh von Brown „Human universals and their implications“ entstammen.

Ich finde sie ganz interessant und stelle sie hier auch einmal rein:


abstraction in speech and thought

actions under self-control distinguished from those not under control


affection expressed and felt

age grades

age statuses

age terms




baby talk

belief in supernatural religion

beliefs, false

beliefs about death

beliefs about disease

beliefs about fortune and misfortune

binary cognitive distinctions

biological mother and social mother normally the same person

black (color term)

body adornment

childbirth customs


childhood fears

childhood fear of loud noises

childhood fear of strangers

choice making (choosing alternatives)


classification of age

classification of behavioral propensities

classification of body parts

classification of colors

classification of fauna

classification of flora

classification of inner states

classification of kin

classification of sex

classification of space

classification of tools

classification of weather

conditions coalitions

collective identities


conflict, consultation to deal with

conflict, means of dealing with

conflict, mediation of

conjectural reasoning


continua (ordering as cognitive pattern)

contrasting marked and nonmarked sememes (meaningful elements in language)



cooperative labor

copulation normally conducted in privacy

corporate (perpetual) statuses

coyness display


cultural variability


culture/nature distinction

customary greetings

daily routines


death rituals

decision making

decision making, collective

directions, giving of

discrepancies between speech, thought, and action

dispersed groups

distinguishing right and wrong



division of labor

division of labor by age

division of labor by sex


dream interpretation

economic inequalities

economic inequalities, consciousness of



entification (treating patterns and relations as things)

environment, adjustments to


envy, symbolic means of coping with




face (word for)

facial communication

facial expression of anger

facial expression of contempt

facial expression of disgust

facial expression of fear

facial expression of happiness

facial expression of sadness

facial expression of surprise

facial expressions, masking/modifying of

family (or household)

father and mother, separate kin terms for


fears, ability to overcome some


females do more direct childcare

figurative speech



food preferences

food sharing

future, attempts to predict

generosity admired


gift giving

good and bad distinguished




group living

groups that are not based on family


hand (word for)

healing the sick (or attempting to)


hygienic care

identity, collective

incest between mother and son unthinkable or tabooed

incest, prevention or avoidance

in-group distinguished from out-group(s)

in-group, biases in favor of

inheritance rules


intention .

interest in bioforms (living things or things that resemble them)

interpreting behavior

intertwining (e.g., weaving)


kin, close distinguished from distant

kin groups

kin terms translatable by basic relations of procreation

kinship statuses


language employed to manipulate others

language employed to misinform or mislead

language is translatable

language not a simple reflection of reality

language, prestige from proficient use of

law (rights and obligations)

law (rules of membership)



linguistic redundancy

logical notions

logical notion of “and”

logical notion of “equivalent”

logical notion of “general/particular”

logical notion of “not”

logical notion of “opposite”

logical notion of “part/whole”

logical notion of “same”


magic to increase life

magic to sustain life

magic to win love

male and female and adult and child seen as having different natures

males dominate public/political realm

males more aggressive

males more prone to lethal violence

males more prone to theft

manipulate social relations

marking at phonemic, syntactic, and lexical levels



meal times

meaning, most units of are non-universal







mood- or consciousness-altering techniques and/or substances


mother normally has consort during child-rearing years


murder proscribed


music, children’s

music related in part to dance

music related in part to religious activity

music seen as art (a creation)

music, vocal

music, vocal, includes speech forms

musical redundancy

musical repetition

musical variation



nomenclature (perhaps the same as classification)

nonbodily decorative art

normal distinguished from abnormal states


numerals (counting)

Oedipus complex

oligarchy (de facto)

one (numeral)


overestimating objectivity of thought



person, concept of

personal names


phonemes defined by sets of minimally contrasting features

phonemes, merging of

phonemes, range from 10 to 70 in number

phonemic change, inevitability of

phonemic change, rules of

phonemic system


planning for future


play to perfect skills


poetic line, uniform length range

poetic lines characterized by repetition and variation

poetic lines demarcated by pauses

polysemy (one word has several related meanings)

possessive, intimate

possessive, loose

practice to improve skills

preference for own children and close kin (nepotism)

prestige inequalities

private inner life



pronouns, minimum two numbers

pronouns, minimum three persons

proper names


psychological defense mechanisms


rape proscribed

reciprocal exchanges (of labor, goods, or services)

reciprocity, negative (revenge, retaliation)

reciprocity, positive

recognition of individuals by face

redress of wrongs


right-handedness as population norm

rites of passage


role and personality seen in dynamic interrelationship (i.e., departures from role can be explained in terms of individual personality)


sanctions for crimes against the collectivity

sanctions include removal from the social unit

self distinguished from other

self as neither wholly passive nor wholly autonomous

self as subject and object

self is responsible


semantic category of affecting things and people

semantic category of dimension

semantic category of giving

semantic category of location

semantic category of motion

semantic category of speed

semantic category of other physical properties

semantic components

semantic components, generation

semantic components, sex

sememes, commonly used ones are short, infrequently used ones are longer

senses unified

sex (gender) terminology is fundamentally binary

sex statuses

sexual attraction

sexual attractiveness

sexual jealousy

sexual modesty

sexual regulation

sexual regulation includes incest prevention

sexuality as focus of interest


sickness and death seen as related

snakes, wariness around

social structure


socialization expected from senior kin

socialization includes toilet training


special speech for special occasions

statuses and roles

statuses, ascribed and achieved

statuses distinguished from individuals

statuses on other than sex, age, or kinship bases

stop/nonstop contrasts (in speech sounds)


sweets preferred


symbolic speech



tabooed foods

tabooed utterances




time, cyclicity of


tool dependency

tool making

tools for cutting

tools to make tools

tools patterned culturally

tools, permanent

tools for pounding


triangular awareness (assessing relationships among the self and two other people)

true and false distinguished


two (numeral)

tying material (i.e., something like string)

units of time


violence, some forms of proscribed


vocalic/nonvocalic contrasts in phonemes

vowel contrasts



weather control (attempts to)

white (color term)

world view

Additions Since 1989



critical learning periods

differential valuations


fairness (equity),

concept of

fear of death



husband older than wife

on average


institutions (organized co-activities)



judging others

likes and dislikes

making comparisons

males, on average, travel greater distances over lifetime

males engage in more coalitional violence

mental maps


moral sentiments

moral sentiments, limited effective range of

precedence, concept of (that’s how the leopard got its spots)

pretend play


proverbs, sayings

proverbs, sayings — in mutually contradictory forms

resistance to abuse of power, to dominance

risk taking


self-image, awareness of (concern for what others think)

self-image, manipulation of

self-image, wanted to be

positive sex differences in spatial

cognition and behavior shame

stinginess, disapproval of

sucking wounds

synesthetic metaphors

thumb sucking

tickling toys, playthings


Auch ein anderer Artikel will etwas Ordnung in diese Gemeinsamkeiten bringen:

We propose that two psychological dimensions, one relevant to relationships and group life (communion, C) and the other to skill acquisition, talent, and accomplishment (agency, A), aid people in interpreting their social worlds. Moreover, our analysis demonstrates the privileged nature of the C dimension and its relative stability compared to the A dimension across contexts and cultures. In Study 1 we use a standard compilation of culturally universal practices and show that the C dimension accounts for the majority of these universals, implying that the meaning of A traits varies more across cultures than that of C traits. In Studies 2 and 3, we provide evidence for this proposal using different judgment paradigms and cultural groups. The findings indicate that there is greater similarity and consensus in how people make sense of and judge information from the C than A dimension. We discuss the findings in terms of the recurring challenges people face over time as a result of living in groups

Quelle: Life’s recurring challenges and the fundamental dimensions: An integration and its implications for cultural differences and similarities

Danach wären also gerade in den Bereichen Beziehungen zu anderen Menschen und Gruppenleben die meisten Gemeinsamkeiten vorhanden, während in dem Bereich des Fähigkeitenerwerbs, des Talents und des Erreichen von Zielen weniger Gemeinsamkeiten vorhanden sind.

Au der Besprechung:

The present studies have shown that the C aspects of traits and behaviors dominate what people think about and do. They have also shown that how people understand and make sense of the C dimension varies less across cultures than how they make sense of the A dimension.

Study 1 provided evidence for the first point by showing that across 372 observed cultural universals in practices, most of them had either C or A implications, or both. And when we looked at those practices classified as only C or A-related, the majority of them were assigned to the C-related category. Thus, a large percentage of what is universal in thought and behavior deals with those aspects of life that are relevant to governing how people interact with others and manage group life.

Studies 2 and 3 built on these findings to examine the idea that how people make sense of the A-related aspects of traits and behaviors varies more across cultural contexts compared to the C-related aspects of behavior. Using different paradigms and comparing different cultural groups, the results showed no cultural differences in judgment for the C dimension. However, for traits and behaviors from the A dimension, the interaction involving culture was significant in both studies. Thus, the C-related dimension produced more similarity across culture, whereas the A-related dimension produced more variation.

The ubiquity of behavioral practices that relate to the communion and agency dimensions makes sense when viewed in the context of the recurring challenges people face over their lifetime and the challenges humans have faced over evolutionary time. On the one hand people need social connections and acceptance, given the many benefits such connections offer (protection, availability of resources, finding mates). This challenge can be met by using the C dimension in information processing and regulating behavior, as it is particularly relevant to group living and a sense of right and wrong in interpersonal relationships. But people also need to develop and attain skills, talent, and status, which are manifested through the A dimension. This challenge can be met by using the A dimension in information processing and regulating behavior, given that the A dimension deals with how people make sense of problems, perform tasks, and distinguish themselves from others.

The potential usefulness of the present results and analyses not only derives from putting the fundamental dimensions in the context of life’s recurring challenges, but also from giving a primary role to the C dimension, especially as reflected in the culture-related findings from Study 1. In our analysis, we further propose that a core feature of the A dimension is that talents and skills, and the occasions for attaining and expressing such competencies, may be more limited and tied to the current context. An implication of this reasoning, which we tested and found support for in Studies 2 and 3, is that how people define talent and intelligence, core aspects of the A dimension, may be quite variable across situations, including cultural contexts. On the other hand, with regard to the C dimension, despite differing ecological and work-related niches, humans as members of a group-living species value being socially connected and thus carry the motivation to be good group members and abide by group norms, regardless of context and cultural heritage.

Bei Gruppentieren ist die Gruppe eben eines der wichtigsten Kriterien, da eine Kooperation bzw. Bündnisse es einzelnen Mitgliedern der Gruppe erlauben, sich gemeinsam gegen andere durchzusetzen. Dass sich hier bestimmte Regeln herausgebildet haben, die das Sozialgefüge einer Gruppe betreffen überrascht nicht. Bei der Aneignung von Fähigkeiten etc ist schon aufgrund der immer neuen Fähigkeiten ein wesentlich größerer Spielraum vorhanden.