In einem interessanten Artikel beschwert sich der Autor, dass Männer zu besessen von Arbeit und Geld sind:
The wage gap at the top is the sum of many cultural forces, including discrimination at work and an expectation that new moms stay home while high-earning dads get back to work. But it is also the result of a subtler cultural force—a values gap. Among equally smart men and women, men, on average, gravitate toward making as much money as possible and working long hours to do it. Women, on average, do not.
Das deckt sich mit den Ergebnissen dieser Studie zu mathematisch hochbegabten Menschen und deren Leben.
Es passt auch wunderbar dazu, dass Status- und Ressourcenaufbau für Männer wichtiger ist, weil beides in ihre Attraktivität einfließen kann und sexuelle Selektion demnach für sie den Erwerb dieser interessanter macht.
Even before men and women enter the workforce, researchers see this values gap and its role in the pay gap. A new study of several hundred NYU undergrads (elite students, not average 20-year-olds) found that young men and women with similar SAT scores express starkly diverging visions of their ideal job. Young female students, on average, say they prefer jobs with more stability and flexibility—“lower risk of job loss, lower hours, and part-time option availability”—while male students, on average, say they prefer more earnings growth, according to researchers Matthew Wiswall, at Arizona State University, and Basit Zafar, of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. The qualifier “on average” is important here. Genders are not uniform blocs. Some women are more interested in being millionaires than some men; some men are more interested in working part-time than their female friends.
Die verlinkte Studie ist die falsche.
Es scheint mir aber diese hier zu sein:
We use a hypothetical choice methodology to estimate preferences for workplace attributes from a sample of high-ability undergraduates attending a highly selective university. We estimate that women on average have a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for jobs with greater work flexibility and job stability, and men have a higher WTP for jobs with higher earnings growth. These job preferences relate to college major choices and to actual job choices reported in a follow-up survey four years after graduation. The gender differences in preferences explain at least a quarter of the early-career gender wage gap
Quelle: Preference for the Workplace, Investment in Human Capital, and Gender
Das wäre ja schon ein sehr großer Anteil, der in bisherigen Berechnungen noch nicht einmal erfasst ist.
Weiter aus dem Artikel:
Students’ values shape their majors and their jobs. Those who want to make a lot of money (on average, more men) are more likely to major in economics or business; men are more than 50 percent more likely than women to major in economics at every Ivy League university. Those who prize flexibility and accept lower pay (on average, more women) are more likely to be in the humanities. When Wiswall and Zafar followed up several years later, they discovered that college values predict first jobs: “Students with strong preferences for flexible hours and distaste for hours” were more likely to be in jobs with flexible hours and fewer hours.
Young American men’s preference for risk and reward has been established in other research. In a 2005 study from Stanford University, men and women solving math equations for money in a university lab were given the option to complete the problems in a tournament, where they had a smaller chance of winning but a higher potential reward. Men were twice as likely as women to enter the tournament—73 percent compared to 35 percent—and many who entered the tournament won less money. The study’s conclusion: Women sometimes shy away from competition, but also, “men compete too much.”
Was dann auch dazu führen kann, dass Männer sowohl an der Spitze als auch am „Boden“ häufiger vertreten sind. Für die, die besser abschnitten, ist es eben relativ egal, ob andere Männer schlechter abschnitten. Die Gruppe Mann besteht eben aus Einzelmitgliedern, die jeweils Erfolg haben wollen und nicht auf die Gruppe abstellen.
When Harvard Business School surveyed 25,000 of its male and female graduates, it found that high-achieving women failed to meet their career goals. At graduation, most women said they expected “egalitarian” marriages, where both spouses’ careers were taken equally seriously, but several years later, more women had deferred their husbands’ careers. This study, and others, suggest that while married couples often make work-and-home decisions as a unit, the cultural expectation that men be the top providers proves to be an insurmountable force, even (or especially) among the best educated households.
Auch da nichts neues.
Auch das Folgende ist noch interessant:
Rich American men, by comparison, are the workaholics of the world. They put in significantly longer hours than both fully employed middle-class Americans and rich men in other countries. Between 1985 and 2010, the weekly leisure time of college-educated men fell by 2.5 hours, more than any other demographic. „Building wealth to them is a creative process, and the closest thing they have to fun,” the economist Robert Frank wrote.
Auch das ist etwas, was unterschätzt wird. Erfolg ist eben nicht einfach Privileg, sondern oft harte Arbeit. Im Gegenzug wird in dem Artikel angeführt, dass Frauen häufig die tatsächlich glücklicheren sind.
Auch diese Stelle fand ich noch interessant:
Meanwhile, in the U.S. economy, women are twice as likely to work part-time than men—26 percent to 13 percent. This ratio holds for even high-paying jobs. A 2016 report from the health site Medscape found that female doctors were twice as likely to work part-time as their male peers.
In Deutschland ist meines Wissens die Quote der halbtagsarbeitenden Frauen noch höher oder nicht? Wer zahlen hat: Gerne in den Kommentaren.
Zu den Ursachen des „Value Gap“
It’s hard to identify the root causes of the values gap. Are women averse to high-risk, high-reward professions because they expect, from an early age, that these career paths are barricaded by discrimination? Maybe. Are women less interested in working more hours because pay disparities mean that the marginal hour worked earns them less money? Maybe. Are subtle and hard-to-measure cultural expectations nudging young women toward jobs that would offer flexibility (to care for kids they don’t yet have) while pushing men toward high-paying jobs (to provide for that family they don’t yet have)? Maybe. Are part-time female workers in the U.S. happier at work because their husbands are the primary breadwinners, and they don’t feel a similar burden at the office? Maybe. In addition to these cultural factors, are there biological factors that, for better and worse, make men more likely to seek out risks? Maybe.
Den aus meiner Sicht wesentlich wahrscheinlicheren Grund, nämlich Evolution, spricht er leider nicht an.
But something else is clear: There is a workaholic mania among educated wealth-seeking American men, who seem uniquely devoted to working any number of hours to get rich. Remember the lesson of the Stanford study: Sometimes, the winners of a tournament are the ones who choose not to enter it.
Ist das jetzt eigentlich ein positiver Artikel, der Männer daran erinnert, dass sich das Leben sich nicht nur um Arbeit dreht oder ein negativer Artikel, der Männer für ihre Arbeit basht?