Frau-zu-Mann-Transsexuelle und Autismus

Eine interessante Studie beschäftigt sich mit Frau-zu-Mann-Transsexuellen und Autismus:

The ‘extreme male brain’ theory suggests females with Autism Spectrum Conditions are hyper-masculinized in certain aspects of behavior. We predicted that females with Gender Identity Disorder (who are masculinized) would have elevated Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores. AQ scores from five groups were compared: (1) n = 61 transmen (female-to-male transsexual people); (2) n = 198 transwomen (male-to-female transsexual people); (3) n = 76 typical males; (4) n = 98 typical females; and (5) n = 125 individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS). Transmen had a higher mean AQ than typical females, typical males and transwomen, but lower than individuals with AS. Transmen have more autistic traits and may have had difficulty socializing with female peers and thus found it easier to identify with male peer groups.

Quelle: Brief Report: Female-To-Male Transsexual People and Autistic Traits (PDF)

Das ist interessant, weil die Theorie des „extrem männlichen Gehirns“ Autismus als eben eine solche Ausprägung ansieht, weswegen Männer wesentlich häufiger von Autismus betroffen sind als Frauen. Nach dieser Theorie wären solche extrem männlichen Gehirne eher auf Sachen und weniger auf Personen bezogen, weswegen Autisten mit Menschen gar nicht zurecht kommen und ihre Handlungen wesentlich schwerer verstehen. Der Schluss daraus ist, dass Frauen mit einem solchen extrem männlichen Gehirn sich dann eben eher als Männer sehen und auf deren Art denken, zumindest auf diese Weise eher mit Männern zurechtkommen als mit Frauen.

Die Forscher dazu:

We found there was no difference between transwomen and control males on the AQ: transwomen have a mean AQ score that lies in the average range for both control males and females, and is not significantly different from either. Similarly, the proportion of transwomen with BAP and MAP also lies between control males and control females. Interestingly, within the 198 transwomen group, there were 6 individuals (i.e. 3%) with a diagnosis of AS. This rate is about 3 times as many as in the general population (Baird et al. 2006), although we have not calculated confidence intervals for this, it is consistent with previous studies (de Vries et al. 2010). Interestingly, among the transwomen sexual preference influenced AQ scores, consistent with findings that there are different typologies among transwomen based upon their sexual orientation (Lawrence 2010). Future research should explore this connection, as it appears that the association between GID and ASC in transwomen is complex

Aus der Besprechung am Ende:

In closing, this study provides evidence that transmen have an elevated number of autistic traits. This may be a reflection of elevated FT levels since both normative amniotic testosterone studies (Chapman et al. 2006; Knickmeyer et al. 2005) and studies of rare genetic conditions in which FT levels are abnormally high (such as in females with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia) (Knickmeyer et al. 2006a) indicate that higher FT is correlated with reduced empathy, reduced social interest, reduced social skills, and higher AQ scores. Quite how this is expressed in terms of neural masculinization (Baron-Cohen et al. 2005) is an important question for further study, which we are currently seeking to answer using MRI in children whose amniotic FT levels are known. The causation of GID and its development is complex and this paper is a contribution regarding a particular association between GID and ASC.