Die Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) (oder auf deutsch: Internationaler Schwimmverband) hat neue Regeln für die Teilnahme von Transpersonen an Schwimmwettbewerben vorgegeben:
The vote, which was 71.5 percent in favour of the new policy, took place after Congress heard speeches from representatives of a working group that was set up in November 2021. This working group consisted of three specialist groups – an athlete group, a science and medicine group, and a legal and human rights group.
After analysing the conclusions of these groups, FINA developed a new policy that will apply at all FINA events. The policy will also be followed for world record ratification, wherever the competition took place.
The full FINA gender inclusion policy can be found here.
Included in the policy are proposals for an open competition category. FINA will establish a new working group that will spend the next six months looking at the most effective ways to set up this new category.
Commenting on the policy, FINA President Husain Al-Musallam said; “We have to protect the rights of our athletes to compete, but we also have to protect competitive fairness at our events, especially the women’s category at FINA competitions.”
The FINA President added: “FINA will always welcome every athlete. The creation of an open category will mean that everybody has the opportunity to compete at an elite level. This has not been done before, so FINA will need to lead the way. I want all athletes to feel included in being able to develop ideas during this process.”
The new FINA gender inclusion policy comes into effect on 20 June 2022.
Die Presseerklärung ist etwas vage, aber in den Regeln findet sich dann:
The Science Group reported that biological sex is a key determinant of athletic performance, with males outperforming females in sports (including Aquatics sports) that are primarily determined by neuromuscular, cardiovascular, and respiratory function, and anthropometrics including body and limb size. The extent of the male/female performance gap varies by sport and competition, but the gap universally emerges starting from the onset of puberty. The group reported that there are sex-linked biological differences in Aquatics, especially among elite athletes, that are largely the result of the substantially higher levels of testosterone to which males are exposed from puberty onwards. Prior to puberty, testosterone levels are similar in females and males. During puberty, however, testes-derived testosterone concentrations increase 20-fold in males, while testosterone concentrations remain low in females so that post-pubescent males have circulating testosterone concentrations at least 15 times higher than post-pubescent females (15-20 nmol/L in adult males versus c.1 nmol/L in typical females of any age). High testosterone levels generate not only anatomical divergence in the reproductive system but also measurably different body types/compositions between sexes.
According to the Science Group, if gender-affirming male-to-female transition consistent with the medical standard of care is initiated after the onset of puberty, it will blunt some, but not all, of the effects of testosterone on body structure, muscle function, and other determinants of performance, but there will be persistent legacy effects that will give male-to-female transgender athletes (transgender women) a relative performance advantage over biological females. A biological female athlete cannot overcome that advantage through training or nutrition. Nor can they take additional testosterone to obtain the same advantage, because testosterone is a prohibited substance under the World Anti-Doping Code.
The Legal and Human Rights Group was comprised of legal experts in sex discrimination, human rights, and international sports law, including the jurisprudence of the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS). This group accepted the lawfulness of FINA’s mission, authority and responsibility, and FINA’s core commitment to equality of opportunity for both male and female athletes, all as summarised above.
Da wird es sicherlich einiges an Aufschrei geben. „Biological Female“ alleine dürfte schon dafür sorgen
C. THE POLICY
Taking into account all of the matters outlined above, FINA issues this policy (the Policy) establishing the criteria for eligibility (a) to compete in the men’s category or in the women’s category in the FINA World Championships, World Cups, Grand Prix, World Leagues, and World Series events and tournaments, and other international competitions events (FINA competitions), and (b) to set FINA World Records in the men’s category or in the women’s category in FINA competitions and in other events recognised by FINA, wherever they are held.
D. POLICY DEFINITIONS
FINA recognises that some individuals and groups may be uncomfortable with the use of medical and scientific terminology related to sex and sex-linked traits. FINA respects all Aquatics athletes and has sought to avoid sensitive terminology that may cause offense. Nevertheless, some use of sensitive terminology is needed to be precise about the sex characteristics that justify separate competition categories and to ensure that the Policy’s terms are understood by all Aquatics stakeholders. Some of those terms are explained in this section.
For purposes of this Policy:
“Differences of sexual development” (DSD) are a group of conditions where external genital appearance is discordant with internal sex organs (testes and ovaries). This Policy is only concerned with 46 XY DSD, i.e., DSD affecting athletes with testes (males as defined below).
The word “female” means possession of XX chromosomes and (in the absence of medical intervention) ovaries and increased circulating oestrogen and progesterone starting at puberty.
The word “male” means possession of XY chromosomes and (in the absence of medical intervention) testes and increased circulating testosterone starting at puberty.
The word “sex” denotes natural biological differences between females and males, including chromosomes, sex organs, and endogenous hormonal profiles. This Policy uses the word “sex” and the term “biological sex” interchangeably.
The term “Tanner Stages” denotes the five stages of puberty during which individuals develop secondary sex characteristics. Tanner Stage 2 denotes the onset of puberty. The normal time of onset of puberty ranges from 8 to 13 years old in females, and from 9 to 14 years old in males. The term “transgender” refers to individuals whose gender identity and/or expression differs from what is typically associated with their sex.
Eine Definition nach den Chromosomen, und zwar nur XY und XX, das wird auch vielen nicht passen.
a. All athletes must certify their chromosomal sex with their Member
Federation in order to be eligible for FINA competitions. Failure to do so, or
provision of a false certification, will render the athlete ineligible.
b. Member Federations must confirm their athletes’ certifications of
chromosomal sex when registering their athletes to compete in FINA
c. FINA reserves the right to include a chromosomal sex screen in its antidoping protocol to confirm such certification.
Also Chromosomentests als Nachweis
Dann zu der Männer Kategorie:
Eligibility for the Men’s Category
a. All male athletes, including athletes with 46 XY DSD, are eligible to
compete in FINA competitions and to set FINA World Records in the men’s
category, regardless of their legal gender, gender identity, or gender
b. Female-to-male transgender athletes (transgender men) are eligible to
compete in FINA competitions and to set FINA World Records in the men’s
category, except that:
i. For the disciplines of Water Polo and High Diving, the athlete must provide to FINA an assumption of risk form (in the form set out in Appendix One to this Policy) signed and dated by the athlete or, if the athlete is a minor, by their legal proxy.
[Comment to Section F.3.b.i: It is strongly recommended that the athlete speaks with a qualified medical specialist prior to competition to ensure their physical ability to participate in the event in the men’s category and to ensure that they understand the attendant risks.]
ii. All athletes who are undergoing treatment involving testosterone or
other anabolic substances as part of female-to-male genderaffirming hormone treatment are required to obtain a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) for that treatment in accordance with the FINA Doping Control Rules (FINA DCR).
46 XY DSD wäre denke ich Gonadendysgenesie, 46, XY-Typ
- männlicher Karyotyp (XY)
- sehr variable Ausprägung
- äußeres Geschlechtsorgane von normal männlich bis weiblich mit unterentwickelten Labien
- alle Formen der Intersexualität können vorkommen
- innere Geschlechtsorgane von männlichen Adnexen mit fehlenden oder dysplastischen Hoden bis normale Eileiter und unterentwickelter Uterus
- fehlentwickelte (dysgenetische) Gonadenanlage, bei nur einseitiger Anorchie fehlentwickelte GegenseiteHinzu kann Geistige Behinderung kommen.
F->M Transsexuelle dürfen ebenfalls unter Männern starten, müssen aber entsprechende Bescheinigungen zu ihrer Hormonbehandlung vorlegen, die Doping Regeln entsprechen.
Interessant sind die Ausnahmen für Wasserball, wohl das, was einem Kampfsport im Wasser am nächsten kommt, wenn ich das richtig verstehe und bei dem es häufig zu diversen Verletzungen kommt „High Diving“ (Springen aus großen Höhen, in den Wettkämpfen springen die Frauen wohl von 20 Metern und die Männer von 27 m)
Für Wasserball und High Diving hat die Fina entsprechende Formulare angehängt, in denen es um die Risiken geht, denen man zustimmt.
Dann die Frauenkategorie:
Eligibility for the Women’s Category
a. All female athletes are eligible to compete in FINA competitions and set
FINA World Records in the women’s category, regardless of their legal gender, gender identity, or gender expression, under the following
i. Athletes who have previously used testosterone as part of female to male gender-affirming hormone treatment (with or without a TUE) but are no longer following that treatment are eligible to compete in the women’s category in FINA competitions and to set FINA World Records in the women’s category in FINA competitions and in other events recognised by FINA if they can establish to FINA’s comfortable satisfaction that
(a) the testosterone use was for less than a year in total (i.e., from the date of first use to the date of last use) and did not take place during pubertal growth and development, and
(b) their testosterone levels in serum (or plasma) are back to pre-treatment normal and any associated anabolic effects have been eliminated.
„Female “ wäre hier also XX-Chromosomen. Frauen, die Testosteron im Rahmen einer F->M Transsexualität genutzt haben dürfen dies nur ein Jahr lang gemacht haben und nicht während der Pubertät und ihre Werte müssen wieder auf Normal sein und es dürfen keine anabolen Effekte mehr vorhanden sein.
ii. Female athletes who have used testosterone in violation of the
World Anti-Doping Code or FINA DCR (or any other applicable antidoping rules) may return to competition after they have served their period of ineligibility.
Also eine Klarstellung für „Normales Doping“
b. Male-to-female transgender athletes (transgender women) and athletes with 46 XY DSD whose legal gender and/or gender identity is female are eligible to compete in the women’s category in FINA competitions and to set FINA World Records in the women’s category in FINA competitions and in other events recognised by FINA if they can establish to FINA’s comfortable satisfaction that they have not experienced any part of male puberty beyond Tanner Stage 2 or before age 12, whichever is later.
Specifically, the athlete must produce evidence establishing that:
i. They have complete androgen insensitivity and therefore could not
experience male puberty; or
ii. They are androgen sensitive but had male puberty suppressed beginning at Tanner Stage 2 or before age 12, whichever is later, and they have since continuously maintained their testosterone levels in serum (or plasma) below 2.5 nmol/L.
iii. An unintentional deviation from the below 2.5 nmol/L requirement may result in retrospective disqualification of results and/or a prospective period of ineligibility.
iv. An intentional deviation from the below 2.5 nmol/L requirement may result in retrospective disqualification of results and a prospective period of ineligibility equal or commensurate in length to periods imposed under the FINA DRC for intentional anti-doping rule violations involving anabolic steroids.
Also nach wie vor eine Möglichkeit für M->F Transsexuelle in der Frauenkategorie anzutreten, aber nur wenn sie keine männliche Pubertät durchlebt haben und nachweisen (!) können, dass sie durchgehend keine höheren Werte als 2.5 nmol/L Testosteron hatten. Da dürften die meisten raus sein und es dürfte erst einmal keinen weiteren Lia Thomas geben, der ja die männliche Pubertät durchlebt hat.
Es soll zudem wohl noch eine Extrakategorie für Trans und Interpersonen geschaffen werden, wenn ich das richtig verstanden habe.
Könnten interessante Vorgaben für andere Bereiche sein und eine Übernahme dieser Regeln würde denke ich einiges an Ruhe hineinbringen.
Die eigene Kategorie hätte allerdings dann wahrscheinlich einige Probleme, insbesondere eine geringe Teilnehmerzahl und vermutlich auch ein geringes Zuschauerinteresse.
Wäre natürlich auch eine Frage wie man es aufstellt. Ist es ein zusätzlicher Lauf in den „Normalen“ Schwimmbewerben oder eher ein Spezialwettbewerb, ähnlich der Paralympics?