Umgangston: Differenzen zwischen Männern und Frauen

Eine Freundin erzählt von einem neuen Kollegen:

Er ist irgendwie komisch. Neulich erzählte er etwas von einem Geschäft und meinte „Der Hurensohn hat versucht mich auszunehmen“. Hurensohn, so etwas sagt man doch nicht, schon gar nicht, wenn man sich noch nicht so gut kennt.

Sie rümpft die Nase. Auch ihre Kolleginnen sind entsetzt. Vielleicht auch weil er auch sonst eher etwas merkwürdig ist.

Eigentlich ist sie eine recht bodenständige Frau. Hätte ich gar nicht gedacht, dass sie das so stört. Aber das Frauen im Schnitt empfindlicher sind was den Umgangston angeht ist etwas, was man immer wieder feststellt.

Wie sind eure Erfahrungen?

 

Die Neigung zu bestimmten Fähigkeiten im sprachlichen und im mathematischen Bereich

Eine interessante Studie zum „Ability Tilt“:

Highlights

• Ability tilt measured within-subject differences in math and verbal test scores.
• Males showed math tilt (math>verbal) and STEM preferences (college majors and jobs).
• Females showed verbal tilt (verbal>math) and humanities preferences.
• For both sexes, math tilt predicted math ability and verbal tilt predicted verbal ability.
• Results supported investment theories of intelligence.

This research examined sex differences in ability tilt, defined as within-subject differences in math and verbal scores on three tests (SAT, ACT, PSAT). These differences produced math tilt (math>verbal) and verbal tilt (verbal>math). Both types of tilt were correlated with specific abilities (e.g., verbal and math), based on the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. Tilt was also correlated with college majors in STEM (e.g., science and math) and the humanities (e.g., English and history), and with jobs in STEM and other occupations. Males showed math tilt and STEM preferences, whereas females showed verbal tilt and humanities preferences. For males and females, math tilt predicted math ability and STEM criteria (majors and jobs), and verbal tilt predicted verbal ability and verbal criteria. Tilt scores correlated negatively with competing abilities (e.g., math tilt and verbal ability). The results supported investment theories, which assume that investment in a specific ability boosts similar abilities but retards competing abilities. In addition, the results bolster the validity of tilt, which was unrelated to g but still predicted specific abilities, college majors, and jobs.

Quelle: Sex differences in ability tilt: Support for investment theory

 

Dazu auch:

Mädchen manipulieren, Jungen kämpfen? Direkte und indirekte Aggresionen

Eine interessante Studie zu direkter und indirekter Aggression:

Gender differences in regard to aggressive behaviour were investigated in a series of studies of schoolchildren of different age cohorts: 8-year-olds (N = 85), 11-year-olds (N = 167), and 15-year-olds (N = 127). Different types of aggressive behaviour were measured with peer nomination techniques, supported by self-ratings. The social structure of the peer groups were also studied. The results of the 11-year-old cohort were previously presented by Lagerspetz et al. [1988; Aggressive Behavior 14:403–414], but they are compared here with the other age groups. The principal finding was that girls of the two older cohorts overall make greater use of indirect means of aggression, whereas boys tend to employ direct means. Previously, the main difference between the genders has been thought to be that boys use physical aggressive strategies, while girls prefer verbal ones. Our studies suggest that the differentiation between direct and indirect strategies of aggression presents a more exact picture. Indirect aggressive strategies were not yet fully developed among the 8-year-old girls, but they were already prominent among the 11-year-old girls. Aggressive behaviour was assessed overall by the children themselves to be the highest in this age group.

Quelle: Do girls manipulate and boys fight? developmental trends in regard to direct and indirect aggression (1992)(Sci-Hub)

Es geht also darum, wie Jungs und Mädchen Aggression ausleben. Dazu aus der Studie:

8 Jährige Verteilung Gewalt

8 Jährige Verteilung Gewalt

Bei den 8jährigen sind die Verhaltensweisen noch relativ gleich und die Unterschiede sind relativ gering.

Dennoch sieht man auch schon gewisse Unterschiede. Jungs benutzen eher direkte Aggression als Mädchen, Mädchen hingegen etwas mehr indirekte Aggression und etwas mehr den Entzug (zB von Zuneigung).


Bei 15jährigen verwenden die Mädchen immer noch mehr indirekte Aggression, Jungs greifen wesentlich häufiger zu physischer Aggression und es zeigt sich ein leichter Vorsprung der Jungs bei verbaler Aggression, während Frauen beim Entzug vorne liegen.

Tabelle III splittet dann die verschiedenen Verhaltensweisen noch genauer auf: Höhere Werte bedeuten, dass Mädchen dieses Verhalten eher zeigen, niedrigere, dass Jungs sie eher zeigen. Mädchen wenden also eher Provokationen an und versuchen den anderen schlecht dastehen zu lassen. Jungs verwenden Beleidigungen und Beistellen oder Tritte und Schläge häufiger.

Tabelle IV zeigt, dass man allein nach dem Verhalten der Kinder die Zuordnung zu dem Geschlecht mit sehr hoher Wahrscheinlichkeit vornehmen kann.

Tabelle V zeigt, dass Jungs eher Einzelgänger sind als Mädchen, aber sich auch häufiger zu größeren Gruppen zusammenschließen, während Mädchen häufiger Zweiergruppen bilden.

Das passt insoweit gut zu den bereits dargestellten Modellen:

Männer bilden danach eher Gruppen mit gewissen Hierarchien, Frauen haben eher eine feste Freundin

Interessant ist auch diese Übersicht, die die Veränderung bei verschiedenen Formen von Aggression über das Älter werden zeigt.

 

Geschlechterunterschiede Aggression

Geschlechterunterschiede Aggression

Geschlechterunterschiede Aggression

Geschlechterunterschiede Aggression

Da zeigen sich teilweise recht gleichbleibende Abstände, eine wirkliche größere Umkehr findet nicht statt, lediglich bei „Showering Abuse“ überholen die Mädchen die Jungs. Klischeehafte Aggressionen wie Schmollen (sulking), Lästern (Goshipping) bei den Mädchen aber auch Schupsen und Stoßen und Treten und Schlagen bei den Jungs zeigen auch hier deutliche Unterschiede.

Aus der Diskussion:

The results of the two studies presented here, in combination with the study of the 1 l-year-old cohort presented by Lagerspetz et al. [ 19881, suggest that the gender difference regarding the utilization of direct and indirect methods of aggression is a definite phenomenon, at least during adolescence. The studies also suggest that the usage of indirect methods is dependent on maturation and on the existence of a social network that facilitates the usage of such means for inflicting pain on one’s enemy. At age 8, the structure of the boys’ and the girls’ groups in the classes did not differ significantly. During ages 11 and 15, they did, the girls forming tighter groups and developing more “pairs”. This fact facilitates the use of manipulation of friendship patterns as an aggressive strategy. Girls are also known to mature faster verbally than boys do, which probably in its own way facilitates the usage of indirect means of aggression by increasing
the verbal skills needed for the manipulations in question.

Aggressive behaviour has its highest “peak” at age 11, among these three cohorts. This trend is more clearly seen among the girls than among boys, but it seems to be the case for most of the aggressive behaviours investigated (except for profanity, which is not even a true aggressive behaviour). A possible interpretation is that, during puberty, the interest of the adolescents turns toward other matters, such as dating; the focus is less on the social structure and the hierarchy of the class than before.

A matter for future study is the question of whether boys later catch up, and begin to imply indirect means of aggression as much as girls do. Alternatively, are backbiting, gossiping, and manipulative means still more typically female strategies during adult life?

Es zeigen sich also ab einem gewissen Alter bestimmte Geschlechterunterschiede zwischen Jungs und Mädchen, die auch durch die Gruppenstruktur bedingt sein könnten. Einige dieser Unterschiede scheinen mir sehr repräsentativ für Unterschiede zwischen Männern und Frauen zu sein und auch im Erwachsenenalter fort zu bestehen.

 

Studiensammlung 4: (Prenatale) Hormone und Geschlechterunterschiede im Gehirn und Verhalten

Und weil wir heute eh schon eine Studie hier zu Gehirnunterschieden haben hier ein paar weitere Studien:

1.

Fetal Testosterone Influences Sexually Dimorphic Gray Matter in the Human Brain

In nonhuman species, testosterone is known to have permanent organizing effects early in life that predict later expression of sex differences in brain and behavior. However, in humans, it is still unknown whether such mechanisms have organizing effects on neural sexual dimorphism. In human males, we show that variation in fetal testosterone (FT) predicts later local gray matter volume of specific brain regions in a direction that is congruent with sexual dimorphism observed in a large independent sample of age-matched males and females from the NIH Pediatric MRI Data Repository. Right temporoparietal junction/posterior superior temporal sulcus (RTPJ/pSTS), planum temporale/parietal operculum (PT/PO), and posterior lateral orbitofrontal cortex (plOFC) had local gray matter volume that was both sexually dimorphic and predicted in a congruent direction by FT. That is, gray matter volume in RTPJ/pSTS was greater for males compared to females and was positively predicted by FT. Conversely, gray matter volume in PT/PO and plOFC was greater in females compared to males and was negatively predicted by FT. Subregions of both amygdala and hypothalamus were also sexually dimorphic in the direction of Male > Female, but were not predicted by FT. However, FT positively predicted gray matter volume of a non-sexually dimorphic subregion of the amygdala. These results bridge a long-standing gap between human and nonhuman species by showing that FT acts as an organizing mechanism for the development of regional sexual dimorphism in the human brain.

Ergänzung:

(FT was measured from amniotic fluid samples collected between 13 and 20 weeks of gestation (mean FT, 0.79 nmol/L; SD, 0.34 nmol/L; range, 0.25–1.70 nmol/L).

2.

The Impact of Sex, Puberty, and Hormones on White Matter Microstructure in Adolescents

Background: During adolescence, numerous factors influence the organization of the brain. It is unclear what influence sex and puberty have on white matter microstructure, as well as the role that rapidly increasing sex steroids play. Methods: White matter microstructure was examined in 77 adolescents (ages 10–16) using diffusion tensor imaging. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the relationships between fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) and sex, puberty, and their interaction, controlling for age. Follow-up analyses determined if sex steroids predicted microstructural characteristics in sexually dimorphic and pubertal-related white matter regions, as well as in whole brain. Results: Boys had higher FA in white matter carrying corticospinal, long-range association, and cortico-subcortical fibers, and lower MD in frontal and temporal white matter compared with girls. Pubertal development was related to higher FA in the insula, while a significant sex-by-puberty interaction was seen in superior frontal white matter. In boys, testosterone predicted white matter integrity in sexually dimorphic regions as well as whole brain FA, whereas estradiol showed a negative relationship with FA in girls. Conclusions: Sex differences and puberty uniquely relate to white matter microstructure in adolescents, which can partially be explained by sex steroids.

Ergänzung:

Hormonal Assessment
Four milliliters of blood was collected via venipuncture between the hours of 7:00 to 10:00 AM at the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute in the same week as the imaging session.

3.

Regional sex differences in grey matter volume are associated with sex hormones in the young adult human brain

Previous studies suggest organizing effects of sex hormones on brain structure during early life and puberty, yet little is known about the adult period. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of 17β-estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone on cortical sex differences in grey matter volume (GM) of the adult human brain. To assess sexual dimorphism, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was applied on structural magnetic resonance images of 34 healthy, young adult humans (17 women, 17 men, 26.6 ± 5 years) using analyses of covariance. Subsequently, circulating levels of sex hormones were associated with regional GM using linear regression analyses. After adjustment for sex and total GM, significant associations of regional GM and 17β-estradiol were observed in the left inferior frontal gyrus (β = 0.39, p = 0.02). Regional GM was inversely associated with testosterone in the left inferior frontal gyrus (β = −0.16, p = 0.04), and with progesterone in the right temporal pole (β = −0.39, p = 0.008). Our findings indicate that even in young adulthood, sex hormones exert organizing effects on regional GM. This might help to shed further light on the underlying mechanisms of both functional diversities and congruence between female and male brains.

4.

Pubertal hormones organize the adolescent brain and behavior

Maturation of the reproductive system during puberty results in elevated levels of gonadal steroid hormones. These hormones sculpt neural circuits during adolescence, a time of dramatic rewiring of the nervous system. Here, we review the evidence that steroid-dependent organization of the adolescent brain programs a variety of adult behaviors in animals and humans. Converging lines of evidence indicate that adolescence may be a sensitive period for steroid-dependent brain organization and that variation in the timing of interactions between the hormones of puberty and the adolescent brain leads to individual differences in adult behavior and risk of sex-biased psychopathologies.

5.

Prenatal hormones and childhood sex-segregation: Playmate and play style preferences in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

We investigated playmate and play style preference in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (26 females, 31 males) and their unaffected siblings (26 females, 17 males) using the Playmate and Play Style Preferences Structured Interview (PPPSI). Both unaffected boys and girls preferred same-sex playmates and sex-typical play styles. In the conflict condition where children chose between a same-sex playmate engaged in an other-sex activity or an other-sex playmate engaged in a same-sex activity, boys (both CAH and unaffected brothers) almost exclusively chose playmates based on the preferred play style of the playmate as opposed to the preferred gender label of the playmate. By contrast, unaffected girls used play style and gender label about equally when choosing playmates. Girls with CAH showed a pattern similar to that of boys: their playmate selections were more masculine than unaffected girls, they preferred a boy-typical play style and, in the conflict condition, chose playmates engaged in a masculine activity. These findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure contributes to sex differences in playmate selection observed in typically-developing children, and that, among boys and girls exposed to high levels of androgens prenatally, play style preferences drive sex segregation in play.

6.

Prenatal Hormones and Postnatal Socialization by Parents as Determinants of Male-Typical Toy Play in Girls With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

Toy choices of 3- to 10-year-old children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and of their unaffected siblings were assessed. Also assessed was parental encouragement of sex-typed toy play. Girls with CAH displayed more male-typical toy choices than did their unaffected sisters, whereas boys with and without CAH did not differ. Mothers and fathers encouraged sex-typical toy play in children with and without CAH. However, girls with CAH received more positive feedback for play with girls’ toys than did unaffected girls. Data show that increased male-typical toy play by girls with CAH cannot be explained by parental encouragement of male-typical toy play. Although parents encourage sex-appropriate behavior, their encouragement appears to be insufficient to override the interest of girls with CAH in cross-sexed toy

7.

Increased aggression and activity level in 3- to 11-year-old girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Experimental research in a wide range of mammals has documented powerful influences of androgen during early development on brain systems and behaviors that show sex differences. Clinical research in humans suggests similar influences of early androgen concentrations on some behaviors, including childhood play behavior and adult sexual orientation. However, findings have been inconsistent for some other behaviors that show sex differences, including aggression and activity level in children. This inconsistency may reflect small sample sizes and assessment limitations. In the present study, we assessed aggression and activity level in 3- to 11-year-old children with CAH (38 girls, 29 boys) and in their unaffected siblings (25 girls, 21 boys) using a questionnaire that mothers completed to indicate current aggressive behavior and activity level in their children.

Data supported the hypotheses that:

  • 1. unaffected boys are more aggressive and active than unaffected girls;
  • 2. girls with CAH are more aggressive and active than their unaffected sisters; and
  • 3. boys with and without CAH are similar to one another in aggression and activity level.

These data suggest that early androgens have a masculinizing effect on both aggressive behavior and activity level in girls.

8.

Prenatal androgen exposure alters girls’ responses to information indicating gender-appropriate behaviour

Individual variability in human gender-related behaviour is influenced by many factors, including androgen exposure prenatally, as well as selfsocialization and socialization by others postnatally. Many studies have looked at these types of influences in isolation, but little is known about how they work together. Here, we report that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally, because they have the genetic condition congenital adrenal hyperplasia, show changes in processes related to selfsocialization of gender-related behaviour. Specifically, they are less responsive than other girls to information that particular objects are for girls and they show reduced imitation of female models choosing particular objects. These findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure may influence subsequent gender-related behaviours, including object (toy) choices, in part by changing processes involved in the self-socialization of gendered behaviour, rather than only by inducing permanent changes in the brain during early development. In addition, the findings suggest that some of the behavioural effects of prenatal androgen exposure might be subject to alteration by postnatal socialization processes. The findings also suggest a previously unknown influence of early androgen exposure on later processes involved in self socialization of gender-related behaviour, and thus expand understanding of the developmental systems regulating human gender development.

9.

How early hormones shape gender development

Highlights
Prenatal androgens influence sex-related characteristics to varying degrees.
• Androgens facilitate male-typed activities through interest in things versus people.
• Androgens are associated with some aspects of brain structure and activation.
• Current work is focused on interplay of hormones and social environment.
• Relevant to questions regarding sex-related psychopathology, prenatal programming.
 
Many important psychological characteristics show sex differences, and are influenced by sex hormones at different developmental periods. We focus on the role of sex hormones in early development, particularly the differential effects of prenatal androgens on aspects of gender development. Increasing evidence confirms that prenatal androgens have facilitative effects on male-typed activity interests and engagement (including child toy preferences and adult careers), and spatial abilities, but relatively minimal effects on gender identity. Recent emphasis has been directed to the psychological mechanisms underlying these effects (including sex differences in propulsive movement, and androgen effects on interest in people vs things), and neural substrates of androgen effects (including regional brain volumes, and neural responses to mental rotation, sexually arousing stimuli, emotion, and reward). Ongoing and planned work is focused on understanding the ways in which hormones act jointly with the social environment across time to produce varying trajectories of gender development, and clarifying mechanisms by which androgens affect behaviors. Such work will be facilitated by applying lessons from other species, and by expanding methodology. Understanding hormonal influences on gender development enhances knowledge of psychological development generally, and has important implications for basic and applied questions, including sex differences in psychopathology, women’s underrepresentation in science and math, and clinical care of individuals with variations in gender expression.

10.

The organizing actions of adolescent gonadal steroid hormones on brain and behavioral development

Highlights

• Adolescence is a sensitive period for the effects of hormones on brain and behavior.
• Testicular hormones masculinize and defeminize social and reproductive behaviors.
• Ovarian hormones have both feminizing and defeminizing effects on female behavior.
• Gonadal steroid hormones drive many brain structural changes during adolescence.
• Adolescence may be part of a protracted postnatal steroid-sensitive period.

Abstract
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by dramatic changes in cognition, risk-taking and social behavior. Although gonadal steroid hormones are well-known mediators of these behaviors in adulthood, the role gonadal steroid hormones play in shaping the adolescent brain and behavioral development has only come to light in recent years. Here we discuss the sex-specific impact of gonadal steroid hormones on the developing adolescent brain. Indeed, the effects of gonadal steroid hormones during adolescence on brain structure and behavioral outcomes differs markedly between the sexes. Research findings suggest that adolescence, like the perinatal period, is a sensitive period for the sex-specific effects of gonadal steroid hormones on brain and behavioral development. Furthermore, evidence from studies on male sexual behavior suggests that adolescence is part of a protracted postnatal sensitive period that begins perinatally and ends following adolescence. As such, the perinatal and peripubertal periods of brain and behavioral organization likely do not represent two discrete sensitive periods, but instead are the consequence of normative developmental timing of gonadal hormone secretions in males and females.

11.

Effects of chromosomal sex and hormonal influences on shaping sex differences in brain and behavior: Lessons from cases of disorders of sex development

Sex differences in brain development and postnatal behavior are determined largely by genetic sex and in utero gonadal hormone secretions. In humans however, determining the weight that each of these factors contributes remains a challenge because social influences should also be considered. Cases of disorders of sex development (DSD) provide unique insight into how mutations in genes responsible for gonadal formation can perturb the subsequent developmental hormonal milieu and elicit changes in normal human brain maturation. Specific forms of DSDs such as complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and 5α-reductase deficiency syndrome have variable effects between males and females, and the developmental outcomes of such conditions are largely dependent on sex chromosome composition. Medical and psychological works focused on CAH, CAIS, and 5α-reductase deficiency have helped form the foundation for understanding the roles of genetic and hormonal factors necessary for guiding human brain development. Here we highlight how the three aforementioned DSDs contribute to brain and behavioral phenotypes that can uniquely affect 46,XY and 46,XX individuals in dramatically different fashions

Aus der Studie:

CAH ein Schaubild

CAH, CAIS und 5-alpha reductace Deficiency: ein Schaubild

Weiteres aus der Studie:

Research focused on cases of DSD have helped the scientific community better understand the interplay between gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement with regard to generating some of the sex differences observed in humans. These works have shed light on the likelihood that testosterone exposure, as opposed to sex chromosomes, is a larger contributing factor for guiding one’s sexual orientation and to a lesser extent gender identity. We see that 46,XX CAH individuals that have been exposed to in utero testosterone experience a greater degree of dissatisfaction in gender assignment in addition to above-average levels of homosexual and bisexual fantasies, a proxy for sexual preference. As previously mentioned, other variables are present in CAH cases such as life-long medical interventions and psychosocial confounds. These variables may constitute an environmental factor that, when coupled with biological predispositions, generates variations in sexual orientation and gender identity. That sexual orientation is determined solely by in utero hormonal milieu is unlikely. We see that the vast majority of CAH women, despite having been exposed to above-average levels of testosterone, identify as heterosexual as measured by both partners and sexual fantasies. The science of sexual orientation is still weakly understood at the mechanistic level; however, considerable amounts of research have proposed many possibilities for the causes of same-sex attraction (LeVay, 2012; Bailey et al., 2016).

The strongest evidence that adds support for the influence of testosterone in structuring gender identity comes from the work focused on 46,XY CAIS, in which nearly all individuals researched indicate feelings typical of female gender. In addition to self-reports and clinical evaluations, recent fMRI studies have also demonstrated that CAIS women not only feel female but also neurologically respond more similarly to 46,XX women than to 46,XY men when observing sexual images. However, new studies are continually emerging suggesting that gender identity and sexual orientation in individuals with CAIS are not as clear as once thought, and the rates of nonheterosexual and gender dysphoria may be much higher than currently stated. In addition to CAH and CAIS, 5α-reductase deficiencies have also demonstrated the strong role of testosterone’s ability to organize the human brain hormonally and influence adult gender identity and behavior. If early in utero exposure had no influence in guiding brain gender, we would expect considerable difficulty with the female-to-male transition observed in pubertal years in those with 5α-reductase deficiency. What we observe, however, is that an overwhelming majority of individuals with this condition comfortably transitioned into the new gender role at puberty, a worldwide observation occurring throughout many different types of social environments. Despite the convincing findings for the role of testosterone in generating these observations, the influence of social and other environmental variables are also factors that require consideration.

Cognitive Conclusions
Studying cases of DSDs has also provided insight into some of the biological parameters that generate sex differences in cognitive abilities such as visuospatial awareness and targeting ability. From studies with 46,XX CAH individuals it has been well established that in utero androgen exposure seems to enhance the ability to mentally rotate objects as well as improving hand–eye coordination during targeting tasks. This trait appears to be dependent on sex chromosome complement in addition to hormone exposure, insofar as 46,XY males with CAH actually perform worse than their matched controls, which is unexpected given the fact that CAH males would have equal or elevated levels of circulating testosterone. This raises the notion, as mentioned above, that proper timing and dosage are also likely to be important for enhancing such abilities and that simply having above-average levels of testosterone during development would not generate a “super-male.” CAIS provides another insight into this matter, demonstrating that the ability to respond to testosterone on an XY background is critical to establishing baseline spatial performance abilities. fMRI studies demonstrate that 46,XY CAIS had less inferior parietal lobe neuroactivation when performing spatial rotation tasks, a feature that resembles 46,XX females more than control genetic males. These fMRI studies on CAIS individuals once again minimize social influences and allow for a more unbiased assessment of the requirement for testosterone over genetic composition for shaping these cognitive performance sex differences.
Structural Conclusions
From the MRI studies that have been conducted in patients with CAH, it is clear that DSDs affect more than gonadal development. As highlighted, the central nervous system is highly sensitive to various hormones, and imbalances of these can greatly affect downstream behavior as well as overall brain structure. Variations in amygdala volume seem to be present in some individuals with CAH; however the effect is different depending on sex chromosome composition. Specifically, 46,XY males with CAH show unilateral reductions in the left amygdala, whereas 46,XX females with CAH show bilateral reductions in overall volume. Alterations in amygdala volume seem to be consistent with long-term glucocorticoid replacement therapies because findings for non-CAH patients on such hormone regiments also show amygdala abnormalities. The documentations of white matter irregularities seem to be unaffected by chromosomal sex and to cause similar variations in both males and females with CAH. The explanations for these results are not agreed upon, and more research will be needed before causations can be associated with the unusual white matter findings. Although limited, these discoveries have opened a new area for potential investigation focusing on the role of glucocorticoid influences in the developing brain in addition to the more frequently studied gonadal hormonal contributions. Unfortunately, no extensive structural studies have been conducted in patients with CAIS or 5α-reductase deficiencies. These findings would be invaluable in determining the direct effect of testosterone on the structures that in MRI studies have shown alterations in CAH. Future work focusing on outcomes in individuals with DSD will continue to aid in deciphering the contributions of chromosomal sex and hormones to shaping the sexually dimorphic human brain.

12.

Feminists wrestle with testosterone: Hormones, socialization and cultural interactionism as predictors of women’s gendered selves 

Sociology of gender has developed beyond a personality-centered idea of ‘‘sex-roles’’ to an approach that stresses interaction and social structure. At the same time, there has been a concurrent development in the psychological sex-differences and medical literatures toward including the biological bases of sex-typed behavior and gender identities. In this paper, while we conceptualize gender as a social structure, we focus only on the individual level of analysis: testing the relative strength of (maternal circulating) prenatal hormones, childhood socialization, and the power of expectations attached to adult social roles (cultural interactionist) as explanations for women’s self-reported feminine and masculine selves. Our findings are complex, and support some importance of each theory. Prenatal hormones, childhood socialization, and cultural interactionism were all influential factors for gendered selves. While cultural expectations predicted only feminine selves, prenatal hormones were more robust predictors of masculine sense of self. While personality may be a relatively stable characteristic influenced by the body and childhood socialization, our results reinforce the importance of studying how the social world responds to and reinforces gendered personality.

12.

Genetic association suggests that SMOC1 mediates between prenatal sex hormones and digit ratio

Abstract

Men and women differ statistically in the relative lengths of their index and ring fingers; and the ratio of these lengths has been used as a biomarker for prenatal
testosterone. The ratio has been correlated with a wide range of traits and conditions including prostate cancer, obesity, autism, ADHD, and sexual orientation. In a genome-wide association study of 979 healthy adults, we find that digit ratio is strongly associated with variation upstream of SMOC1 (rs4902759: P = 1.41 9 10-8) and a meta-analysis of this and an independent study shows a probability of P = 1.5 9 10-11. The protein encoded by SMOC1 has recently been shown to play a critical role in limb development; its expression in prostate tissue is dependent on sex hormones, and it has been implicated in the sexually dimorphic development of the gonads. We put forward the hypothesis that SMOC1 provides a link between prenatal hormone exposure and digit ratio.

Anmerkung: Finde ich interessant: Wenn das Protein, welches Einfluss auf die Entwicklung der Gliedmaßen hat, wiederum abhängig von Testosteron ist, dann würde das durchaus erklären, warum die Digit Ratio ein Indikator  für pränatales Testosteron ist, es könnte je nach Zusammenspiel auch zeigen, warum es ein teilweise unzuverlässiger Anzeiger ist, eben weil die Mechanismen unterschiedlich sind.

13.

Exposure to prenatal life events stress is associated with masculinized play behavior in girls

Previous research has shown that prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals can alter children’s neurodevelopment, including sex-typed behavior, and that it can do so in different ways in males and females. Non-chemical exposures, including psychosocial stress, may disrupt the prenatal hormonal milieu as well. To date, only one published study has prospectively examined the relationship between exposure to prenatal stress and gender-specific play behavior during childhood, finding masculinized play behavior in girls who experienced high prenatal life events stress, but no associations in boys. Here we examine this question in a second prospective cohort from the Study for Future Families. Pregnant women completed questionnaires on stressful life events during pregnancy, and those who reported one or more events were considered “stressed”. Families were recontacted several years later (mean age of index child: 4.9 years), and mothers completed a questionnaire including the validated Preschool Activities Inventory (PSAI), which measures sexually dimorphic play behavior. In sex-stratified analyses, after adjusting for child’s age, parental attitudes towards gender-atypical play, age and sex of siblings, and other relevant covariates, girls (n=72) exposed to prenatal life events stress had higher scores on the PSAI masculine sub-scale (β=3.48, p=0.006) and showed a trend towards higher (more masculine) composite scores (β=2.63, p=0.08). By contrast, in males (n=74), there was a trend towards an association between prenatal stress and higher PSAI feminine sub-scale scores (β=2.23, p=0.10), but no association with masculine or composite scores. These data confirm previous findings in humans and animal models suggesting that prenatal stress is a non-chemical endocrine disruptor that may have androgenic effects on female fetuses and anti-androgenic effects on male fetuses.

Anmerkung: Die Werte sind allerdings anscheinend sehr gering

14.

Relations between prenatal testosterone levels and cognitive abilities at 4 years.

Relations between prenatal testosterone (T) levels and cognitive abilities at age 4 were examined for 28 girls and 30 boys. Prenatal T levels were measured in 2nd trimester amniotic fluid samples obtained by amniocentesis and were examined in relation to scores on tests of cognitive abilities. For girls, prenatal T levels showed a curvilinear (inverted U-shaped) relation to language comprehension and classification abilities. Linear relations also were observed in that prenatal T levels were inversely related to girls‘ scores on tasks assessing counting and number facts. Similarly, girls with high average block building scores had lower prenatal T and cognitive abilities were not observed. The observation of relations in girls and not boys is discussed, and the findings are examined in relation to theories of hormone-behavior relations.

15.

Relations between prenatal testosterone and cerebral lateralization in children.

Several theorists have proposed that the sex steroid testosterone acts on the fetal brain during a critical period of development to influence cerebral lateralization (N. Geschwind & A. M. Galaburda, 1987; M. Hines & C. Shipley, see PA, Vol 71:8996; S. F. Witelson, see PA, Vol 79:26441. In the present study. relations were examined between prenatal testosterone levels in 2nd trimester amniotic fluid and lateralization of speech, affect, and handedness at age 10. Girls with higher prenatal testosterone levels were more strongly right-handed and had stronger left-hemisphere speech representation. Boys with higher prenatal testosterone levels had stronger right-hemisphere specialization for the recognition of emotion. This pattern of results is most consistent with Witelson’s (1991) claim that prenatal testosterone leads to greater lateralization of function.

Metastudie zu Geschlechterunterschieden in der Gehirnstruktur

Eine interessante Metastudie hat verschiedene Studien zu Geschlechterunterschieden in der Gehirnstruktur ausgewertet:

Highlights

• This is the first meta-analysis of sex differences in the typical human brain.
• Regional sex differences overlap with areas implicated in psychiatric conditions.
• The amygdala, hippocampus, planum temporale and insula display sex differences.
• On average, males have larger brain volumes than females.
• Most articles providing sex differences in volume are in the ‘mature’ category.

Abstract
The prevalence, age of onset, and symptomatology of many neuropsychiatric conditions differ between males and females. To understand the causes and consequences of sex differences it is important to establish where they occur in the human brain. We report the first meta-analysis of typical sex differences on global brain volume, a descriptive account of the breakdown of studies of each compartmental volume by six age categories, and whole-brain voxel-wise meta-analyses on brain volume and density. Gaussian-process regression coordinate-based meta-analysis was used to examine sex differences in voxel-based regional volume and density. On average, males have larger total brain volumes than females. Examination of the breakdown of studies providing total volumes by age categories indicated a bias towards the 18–59 year-old category. Regional sex differences in volume and tissue density include the amygdala, hippocampus and insula, areas known to be implicated in sex-biased neuropsychiatric conditions. Together, these results suggest candidate regions for investigating the asymmetric effect that sex has on the developing brain, and for understanding sex-biased neurological and psychiatric conditions.

Quelle:  A meta-analysis of sex differences in human brain structure

Wie man an den Werten sieht, gibt es durchaus deutliche Unterschiede:

Unterschiede Gehirn Mann Frau

Unterschiede Gehirn Mann Frau

Aus der Besprechung:

3.3.1. Regional volume meta-analysis
All 16 studies included in the volume voxel-based meta-analysis included a between-group comparison of GM volume, leading to a total of 264 reported GM foci. Only 4 studies performed a WM volume comparison, with a total of 30 WM foci. Since 30 data points are insufficiently spatially dense to perform a meta-analysis, only a coordinate-based meta-analysis on GM volume is currently possible. The 16 studies provided a total of 2186 brains (49% female) aged between 7 and 80 years old. Because an FDR-correction at voxel-level q = 0.05 gave diffuse spatial results, we opted for a more stringent correction to capture the most reliable group differences. The (FDR q = 0.01) thresholded Z-value was 3.428 for the male > female contrast and 3.616 for the female > male contrast, and results are reported in Table 4 using an extent threshold of 60 continuous voxels.

On average, males have larger grey matter volume in bilateral amygdalae, hippocampi, anterior parahippocampal gyri, posterior cingulate gyri, precuneus, putamen and temporal poles, areas in the left posterior and anterior cingulate gyri, and areas in the cerebellum bilateral VIIb, VIIIa and Crus I lobes, left VI and right Crus II lobes. Females on average have larger volume at the right frontal pole, inferior and middle frontal gyri, pars triangularis, planum temporale/parietal operculum, anterior cingulate gyrus, insular cortex, and Heschl’s gyrus; bilateral thalami and precuneus; the left parahippocampal gyrus and lateral occipital cortex (superior division).

3.3.2. Regional tissue density meta-analysis
Eight of the nine studies (eight of the ten age-matched groups) investigating voxel-based sex differences in brain tissue density performed a GM analysis, with a total of 86 reported foci. Only three performed a WM density analysis with a total of 13 foci again discouraging a meta-analysis. The eight studies provided a total number of 741 brains (53% female), aged between 10 and 81 years. Results are reported (with FDR q = 0.05). Z-values were 3.247 for the male > female contrast and 3.445 for the female > male contrast, reported in Table 4 with an extent threshold of 60 continuous voxels. Areas of higher GM density in males compared to females included the left amygdala, hippocampus, insular cortex, pallidum, putamen, claustrum, and an area in the right VI lobe of the cerebellum. The left frontal pole has significantly higher GM tissue density in females compared to males.

Also eine Vielzahl von Regionen, bei denen Unterschiede erkennbar sind.

vgl. auch:

Bem Sex-Role-Inventory (BSRI)

Das BEM Sex Role Inventory ist eine Zusammenstellung bestimmter Eigenschaften, die als männlich oder weiblich angesehen werden. Es wird beispielsweise zur Begutachtung von Transsexuellen eingesetzt, aber auch sonst zur Bewertung von Männlichkeit und Weiblichkeit. Es baut darauf auf, dass bestimmte Eigenschaften eher männlich oder weiblich sind, aber auch darauf, dass die Mischung in einer Person ganz unterschiedlich ausfallen kann und beide Geschlechter bestimmte Eigenschaften verschieden ausgeprägt haben. Dabei wurden die dort behandelten Eigenschaften ermittelt, indem Personen befragt worden sind, was sie für Eigenschaften bei dem anderen Geschlecht als besonders erstrebenswert empfinden.

Getestet wird, indem sich Befragte  auf einer Skala von 1-7 einordnen:

  1. die Eigenschaft trifft nie zu
  2. die Eigenschaft trifft gewöhnlich nicht zu
  3. die Eigenschaft trifft manchmal aber selten zu
  4. die Eigenschaft trifft gelegentlich zu
  5. die Eigenschaft trifft oft zu
  6. die Eigenschaft trifft meistens zu
  7. die Eigenschaft trifft immer zu

Die Liste selbst würde wohl jede Genderfeministin zur Weißglut bringen:

Maskulinität

  • hat Führungseigenschaften
  • tritt bestimmt auf
  • ehrgeizig
  • respekteinflößend
  • kann andere kritisieren, ohne sich dabei unbehaglich zu fühlen
  • verteidigt die eigene Meinung
  • entschlossen
  • sachlich
  • nicht leicht beeinflußbar
  • unerschrocken
  • intelligent
  • hartnäckig
  • ist bereit, etwas zu riskieren
  • kraftvoll
  • furchtlos
  • scharfsinnig
  • wetteifernd
  • sicher
  • zeigt geschäftsmäßiges Verhalten
  • konsequent

Femininität

  • romantisch
  • abhängig
  • weichherzig
  • glücklich
  • bemüht sich, verletzte Gefühle zu besäftigen
  • feinfühlig
  • sinnlich
  • fröhlich
  • nachgiebig
  • bescheiden
  •  empfänglich für Schmeicheleien
  •  empfindsam
  • selbstaufopfernd
  •  benutzt keine barschen Worte
  •  verspielt
  •  verführerisch
  •  achtet auf die eigene äußere Erscheinung
  •  leidenschaftlich
  •  herzlich
  •  liebt Sicherheit

Soziale Erwünschtheit

  • gesellig
  • nervös
  • gesund
  • steif
  • gründlich
  • teilnahmslos
  •  vertrauenswürdig
  •  überspannt
  •   zuverlässig
  •  unpraktisch
  •  fleißig
  •  niedergeschlagen
  • geschickt
  •  eingebildet
  •  gesetzestreu
  •  stumpf
  •  gewissenhaft
  •  unhöflich
  •  aufmerksam
  •  vergeßlich

Die „Soziale Erwünschtheit“ gilt dabei als Geschlechtsneutral.

Eine  Studie (aus 1997) hat geprüft, inwieweit diese Eigenschaften nach wie vor für ein bestimmtes Geschlecht als erstrebenswert angesehen werden:

Für „Männlichkeit“

assessing-the-current-validity-of-the-bem-sex-role-inventory

Für Weiblichkeit

assessing-the-current-validity-of-the-bem-sex-role-inventory-frauen

Man sieht, dass die Geschlechtsunterschiede bei den Männern im wesentlichen nach wie vor vorhanden sind, wenn auch abgeschwächter,  bei den Frauen haben sie sich auch im wesentlichen gehalten, einige sind sogar etwas ausgeprägter.

Bei den Männern hat sich beispielsweise „Dominant“ erheblich verändert, wobei es von einem sehr hohen Unterschiedsniveau auf ein hohes gesunken ist. Bei den Frauen ist „childlike (im deutschen wohl verspielt?) stark abgestürzt.

Bei beiden Geschlechtern ist aber „Männlich“ und „Weiblich“ jeweils noch sehr stark als „erstrebenswert“ besetzt.

Auch diese Auflistung aus einer Studie aus dem Jahr 2001 finde ich interessant:

56cf1a7808ae059e37594932-pdf

Man sieht, dass viele Eigenschaften auch als neutral angesehen werden, aber gleichzeitig auch in vielen das Pendel dann durch die Stimmen, die es entweder als Männlich oder weiblich ansehen, doch wieder eher zu einer Seite ausschlägt. „competitive“ beispielsweise ordnet eine Person den Frauen zu, 133 den Männern und 235 sehen es als neutral.

Finde ich für eine Betrachtung der Geschlechterunterschiede jedenfalls interessant. Kennt jemand weitere Studien, die da die Unterschiede und Veränderungen betreffen?

Die allermeisten Frauen sind lieber Frauen als Männer

Eine interessante Umfrage dazu, wie wohl sich Frauen in ihrer Rolle fühlen:

Almost nine out of 10 women would rather be a woman than a man today, compared with just over half in 1947, a Radio 4 Woman’s Hour poll suggests.

The poll to mark the programme’s 70th anniversary also suggests women in 2016 are more positive about marriage.

Just over two in five (42%) said that men and women gave up equal amounts of freedom in marriage.

Only a quarter of men and women who had taken part in a 1951 survey had felt that way.

Pollsters, who spoke to 1,004 women of all ages, looked at their lives and changing attitudes, covering marriage, money, sex, family, work and appearance. Here are the results:

Erstaunlich, dass sie ihre eigene Unterdrückung gar nicht wahrnehmen. Schließlich sind Männer das privilegierte Geschlecht und Frauen das diskriminierte.