Narzissmus, Machiavellismus und Psychopathie als attraktivmachende Eigenschaften für Männer aus der Sicht von Frauen

Eine interessante Studie behandelt die „Dunkle Triade“und die Frage, ob diese Eigenschaften Männer für Frauen attraktiver machen:

It has been suggested that the Dark Triad (DT) personality constellation is an evolved facilitator of men’s short-term mating strategies. However, previous studies have relied on self-report data to consider the sexual success of DT men. To explore the attractiveness of the DT personality to the other sex, 128 women rated created (male) characters designed to capture high DT facets of personality or a control personality. Physicality was held constant. Women rated the high DT character as significantly more attractive. Moreover, this greater attractiveness was not explained by correlated perceptions of Big 5 traits. These findings are considered in light of mating strategies, the evolutionary ‘arms race’ and individual differences.

Quelle: The Dark Triad personality: Attractiveness to women

Zunächst aus der Wikipedia zu den Eigenschaften der „dunklen Triade“:

Die drei Typen unterscheiden sich vor allem in ihren Strategien und Motiven.

Der Narzisst lässt sich in folgendem Satz beschreiben „Die anderen sind dazu da, um mich zu bewundern.“ Dieser Persönlichkeitstyp der Dunklen Triade hält sich für etwas Besseres und zeichnet sich vor allem durch Selbstüberhöhung aus. Er ist der Meinung, dass ihm Ruhm zusteht.[6]

Der Machiavellist in einem Satz: „Der Zweck heiligt die Mittel“.[6] Personen dieses Typus legen einen manipulativen Verhaltensstil zu Tage.[5] Um seine Ziele zu erreichen, gibt es für den Machiavellisten keine Grenzen. Wenn er mit anderen Menschen zu tun hat, sieht er vor allem ihre Nützlichkeit zur Erreichung seiner Ziele. Er hat eine „Empathie mit Tunnelblick“.[6] Er kann sich in andere hineinversetzen, tut dies aber nur, wenn es seinem gesetzten Ziel dient. Der Machiavellist verfolgt rational und kalkulierend seine Ziele, ohne auf andere Rücksicht zu nehmen. Er weiß, was gesellschaftlich als „gut“ angesehen wird, verhält sich aber nur so, wenn es ihm persönlich zum Erfolg verhilft. Im Vergleich zum Narzissten ist der Machiavellist realistischer bezüglich seiner Person.[6]

Der Psychopath in einem Satz: „Der andere als Objekt“. Er zeichnet sich durch seine rücksichtslosen Verhaltensweisen aus. Im Unterschied zu den anderen beiden Persönlichkeitstypen kommt bei ihm hinzu, dass er keine Angst vor Konsequenzen hat, was ihn kaltblütig werden lässt. Personen dieses Persönlichkeitstyps besitzen eine höhere Wahrscheinlichkeit, kriminelle Straftaten zu begehen.[6] Sein Charakter zeichnet sich vor allem durch hohe Impulsivität und geringe Empathie aus.[5]

Eine Conclusio aus allen dreien ergibt, dass sie alle egoistisch sind und ihr eigenes Wohl über das der anderen erheben. Die drei Typen unterscheiden sich vor allem in ihrer Motivation. Dem Narzissten geht es um Bewunderung, der Machiavellist will seine Ziele erreichen und dem Psychopathen geht es um die Handlung selbst.

Aus den Ergebnissen:

Man hat also einen Charakter geschrieben, der einen hohen Anteil an den Eigenschaften der „Dunklen Triade“ hat und einen Charakter, der einen niedrigen Anteil hat.

Und der Charakter, der einen hohen Anteil von Eigenschaften der dunklen Tirade hatte, wurde als wesentlich attraktiver wahrgenommen:

A t-test showed the high DT character was rated as significantly more attractive than the control character (t126 = 5.40, p < .001 d = 0.94) supporting our hypotheses (see Table 2). For the Big Five, t-tests showed the high DT character was rated as significantly lower on Conscientiousness (t126 = 5.19, p < .001, d = 0.98), Agreeableness (t126 = 6.00, p < .001, d = 1.18) and Neuroticism (t126 = 9.48, p < .001, d = 1.74), and significantly higher on Extraversion (t126 = 7.99, p < .001, d = 1.34). He was also rated lower for Openness (t126 = 2.29, p = .03, d = 0.49), although this did not survive Bonferroni correction for multiple tests (p < .01). The full
correlation matrix can be seen in Table 3.

Das passt durchaus gut in die evolutionsbiologischen Theorien.  Denn Evolution kennt letztendlich keine Moral, sondern nur Effektivität. Und ein Mann mit solchen Charaktereigenschaften, der „durchkommt“, also erfolgreich ist, kann eben sehr effektiv sein, was Statusaufbau und Ressourcen angeht, weswegen auch viele Manager  etc diese Eigenschaften haben. Und wer Erfolg hat, der ist für die Genweitergabe interessant.

 

 

„Ich wäre so viel besser für sie als ihr jetziger Freund“

Aufgabenstellung:

  1. Besprechen Sie den nachfolgenden Song unter den Gesichtspunkten „Attraktivität von „Arschlöchern“ und der Nice Guy Problematik“
  2. Erörtern Sie die Effektivität der Vorgehensweise ihr darzulegen, dass sie es bei einem selbst besser hätte und grenzen Sie dies zu anderen Vorgehensweisen wie etwa dem „Boyfriend Destroyer“ aus dem Pickupbereich ab

I won’t lie to you
I know he’s just not right for you
And you can tell me if I’m off
But I see it on your face
When you say that he’s the one that you want
And you’re spending all your time
In this wrong situation
And anytime you want it to stop

I know I can treat you better
Than he can
And any girl like you deserves a gentleman
Tell me why are we wasting time
On all on your wasted crime
When you should be with me instead
I know I can treat you better
Better than he can

I’ll stop time for you
The second you say you’d like me too
I just wanna give you the loving that you’re missing
Baby, just to wake up with you
Would be everything I need and this could be so different
Tell me what you want to doCause I know I can treat you better
Than he can
And any girl like you deserves a gentleman
Tell me why are we wasting time
On all on your wasted crime
When you should be with me instead
I know I can treat you better

Better than he can
Better than he can

Give me a sign
Take my hand, we’ll be fine
Promise I won’t let you down
Just know that you don’t
Have to do this alone
Promise I’ll never let you down

Cause I know I can treat you better
Than he can
And any girl like you deserves a gentleman
Tell me why are we wasting time
And all on your wasted crime
When you should be with me instead
I know I can treat you better…

Better than he can(oh)
Better than he can
Better than he can

„Ich werde dich besser behandeln als dein jetziger Freund“

I won’t lie to you
I know he’s just not right for you
And you can tell me if I’m off
But I see it on your face
When you say that he’s the one that you want
And you’re spending all your time
In this wrong situation
And anytime you want it to stop

I know I can treat you better
Than he can
And any girl like you deserves a gentleman
Tell me why are we wasting time
On all on your wasted crime
When you should be with me instead
I know I can treat you better
Better than he can

I’ll stop time for you
The second you say you’d like me too
I just wanna give you the loving that you’re missing
Baby, just to wake up with you
Would be everything I need and this could be so different
Tell me what you want to do

Cause I know I can treat you better

Than he can
And any girl like you deserves a gentleman
Tell me why are we wasting time
On all on your wasted crime
When you should be with me instead
I know I can treat you better

Better than he can
Better than he can

Give me a sign
Take my hand, we’ll be fine
Promise I won’t let you down
Just know that you don’t
Have to do this alone
Promise I’ll never let you down

Cause I know I can treat you better
Than he can
And any girl like you deserves a gentleman
Tell me why are we wasting time
And all on your wasted crime
When you should be with me instead
I know I can treat you better…

Better than he can(oh)
Better than he can
Better than he can

 

Meist ein typisches aufs Podest stellen, welches unterschlägt, dass Teile eines „Arschlochverhaltens“ Attraction erzeugen können.

Was Frauen antörnt XX

In Japan gibt es bereits seit längerem Spiele, in denen Frauen einen „virtuellen Liebhaber“ haben. Interessant ist, welche Figuren am Besten bei den Frauen ankommen:

When I asked Gray which character types tend to perform best, she told me that the „sadistic but charismatic“ archetype is beloved in both Japan and the US. She pointed to Eisuke Ichinomiya, which she says is the most popular character in Kissed by the Baddest Bidder, Voltage’s top-grossing game in the US. In most dating sims, the player chooses which story they’d like to play by perusing a character menu rife with alluring boyfriend options; in Voltage games, each character has his own profile page featuring a brief personality synopsis and occasionally a quote describing his hypothetical relationship with the player. On Eisuke’s character profile, he is billed in glittering pink and purple script as a „cold-hearted narcissist.“ His quote is „I’m going to make you mine. And you don’t get to say no.“

Der Bildschirm, über den man ihn auswählen kann ist dort ebenfalls als Bild enthalten, es sieht so aus:

dating-sims-body-image-1458322560

Was haben wir da:

  • Aussehen: Attraktiv
  • Mulitmillionäre: Ressourcen
  • Denkt die Welt dreht sich nur um ihn: Status
  • Immer von Frauen umgeben: Preapproved by women
  • „Ich mache dich mein“: Er interessiert sich für dich
  • „und dein Nein interessiert mich nicht“: Anführer, Dominant

Also klassische Elemente, die sich in sehr vielen Darstellungen von Männern finden, die Frauen attraktiv finden.

Of course, this isn’t unique to Voltage, nor is it even confined to dating simulation games. As anyone who lived through the year 2005 can attest, „I’m going to make youmine. And you don’t get to say no“ is basically the central narrative of Twilight, an omnipresent cultural phenomenon that went onto influence the Fifty Shades of Grey series, an equally omnipresent cultural phenomenon with the exact same plot. „In real life, most women tend to avoid choosing [this type of person] as a boyfriend or husband,“ Gray said. In romance apps, however, women can’t get enough of it. „Usually [this character is] sadistic and mean to you, but sometimes, when you and him are alone, he becomes so sweet and very kind to you,“ Gray explained.

Like Voltage’s millions of other customers worldwide, I quickly came to find the virtual experience of blandly flirting with a variety of assorted hunks, all of whom are inexplicably obsessed with me, very absorbing.

(…)

The allure of the unkind man in fiction is well-documented; in Reading the Romance, Janice Radway’s landmark 1984 study of the way women interact with romance novels, Radway details her interviews with numerous fans of the genre. Reviewing the plots of books that were designated as „ideal,“ she notices a striking similarity in their narrative structures: These romances tend to be „very tightly organized around the evolving relationship“ between the female protagonist and a „brooding, handsome man who is also curiously capable of soft, gentle gestures.“

The climax of these narratives necessarily involves a moment in which „the hero treats the heroine to some supreme act of tenderness, and she realizes that his apparent emotional indifference was only the mark of his hesitancy about revealing the extent of his love for and dependence upon her.“ This is also true of otome games—even the gentle male characters tend to have some sort of „hidden darkness,“ often in the form of an evil alter ego, to facilitate this moment of shocking tenderness. (Mine and Scorpio’s tender climax occurs after a run-in with a small militia composed of child soldiers—an unfortunately recurring theme in Scorpio’s life—at which point he starts calling me by my actual name and we confess our love for each other.

(…)

Here it is instructive to mention Scorpio, my favorite fake boyfriend. Per his character description, he is „A God of Unparalleled Callousness.“ His quote is, „I live for terror, dread, and hate…“ (Ellipses, again, his.) Scorpio is a star god who was banished to earth after committing a grave sin; we first meet when I fall off the roof of a planetarium and he very begrudgingly rescues me. I later learn that, before ascending to the heavens, he was a child soldier who was brainwashed by a nefarious terrorist, which explains why he is so moody now. He exclusively refers to me as „woman“ and „stupid woman.“

Also eine klassische Figur, das Arschloch/der Bad Boy mit dem Herz aus Gold. Der Mann, bei dem man die weiche Seele unter der harten Schale entdecken muss. Attraction und Comfort. Hoher Status, eine gewisse Unnahbarkeit, er muss erobert werden.

 

(zu Vorgängern der Serie)

“Don’t stick your dick in crazy” und “Don’t fuck bad boys”

Yacv hat einmal zwei sehr einfache Regeln vorgestellt, die eine Absicherung vor unliebsamen Überraschungen beim anderen Geschlecht bieten sollen:

Für Männer:

“Don’t stick your dick in crazy”

und für Frauen

“Don’t fuck bad boys”

Eigentlich sehr einfache Regeln, gegen die aber immer wieder verstoßen wird. Bei den Männer meist, weil „crazy“ oft einfachen Sex bereitstellt und diesen eben auch als Mittel der Beeinflussung einsetzt, bei Frauen, weil der Bad Boy eine Vielzahl von Attraktivitätsmerkmalen gerade für Sex bedient.

Dennoch scheint es mir eine Regel zu sein, die viel zum eigenen Glück beitragen kann.

Frauen aufs Podest stellen und nette Männer

Südländerin wird von einem ehemaligen Freund, mit dem sie gegen Ende der Schulzeit zusammen war, über Facebook angeschrieben.

Er versichert ihr, dass sie die Nachricht auch einfach löschen könne, aber es müsse einfach aus ihm raus:

Sie sei die Liebe seines Lebens, das sei ihm jetzt bewußt geworden, alle anderen Frauen seien nichts gegen sie . Dass es damals nicht mit ihnen geklappt habe sei eine Tragödie, er stelle sich heute noch vor, wie es wäre, er mit ihr zusammen wäre, er würde davon träumen, dass sie zurück nach Südland zieht, er wolle sie versorgen, sie könnten eine Familie sein und Kinder bekommen und er würde sie verehren bis an sein Lebensende.

Ich bin etwas überrascht, ich habe ihn sogar einmal bei einem Besuch in Südland kurz gesehen, er sieht aus wie ein klassischer Südlandmacho. Mit diesem Südländer-Drei-Tages-Bart, sportlich, stilvoll gekleidet. Ich ziehe Südländerin etwas auf, dass er doch eine gute Partie wäre. _Verehren_ bis an sein Lebensende. Vollversorgung. Das ist doch mal ein Angebot.

Sie lacht. Schreibt ihm eine Mail, dass es nichts wird. Selbst wenn sie nicht vergeben wäre. Aber sie wünscht ihm alles Gute und eine Frau, die ihn glücklich macht.

Ich frage sie, wie es kommt, dass er gerade ihr so nachtrauert. Er würde doch bestimmt bei Frauen ganz gut ankommen, so wie ich ihn in Erinnerung habe. ich verstehe schon, dass man gerade Freundinnen, die einen verlassen haben und gerade auch die ersten Freundinnen gerne idealisiert, weil es noch die am leichtesten zu verklärenden Beziehungen sind, in ihrer Unschuld und Unerfahrenheit. Aber das sind ja immerhin starke Worte aus dem Nichts und nach langer Zeit.

„Er hat Pech mit Frauen, seine Beziehungen halten alle nicht, nach einem halben Jahr sind die Frauen weg“. „Hast du ihn für andere Frauen verdorben?“

„Nein,  es liegt an ihm, deswegen habe ich auch irgendwann Schluss gemacht. Er war einfach zu nett. Er macht immer alles, was man ihm sagt. Es ist zu langweilig mit ihm“

Was Frauen bei Männern hassen

Auf Heartiste wird ein kurzer Rat bezüglich der Vorlieben von Frauen gegeben:

You need to know two things about female psychology before you know anything else. Women HATE HATE HATE boring men. And women REALLY HATE HATE HATE supplicating yes-men.

Women are attracted — yes, primally, sexually attracted — to interesting men, and to challenging men.

Don’t be boring. Don’t be a suck-up. If you accomplish those two miracles and wonders, you are halfway to sleeping with the kinds of women you’ve always dreamed of defiling.

Kein schlechter Rat finde ich.

Männliche Dominanz und Attraktivität

In der gestern behandelten Studie waren zwei interessante Studien zu männlicher Dominanz und der Attraktivitätsbewertung durch Frauen enthalten.

In der ersten Studie geht es darum, wie sich die Vorliebe für Dominanz zum Zyklus der Frau verhält:

Recent studies have reported that women exhibit elevated preferences for behavioral dominance in potential mates on higher fertility days of the menstrual cycle. This study was designed to test which hormonal signals may be associated with such cycle phase shifts in dominance preferences. Women indicated their mate preferences for dominant personality traits, and self-reported cycle day was used to estimate each woman’s levels of estrogen, FSH, LH, progesterone, prolactin, and testosterone on her day of testing. Women’s preferences for dominance in long-term mates were elevated on cycle days when estrogen is typically elevated, including during the luteal phase when conception is not possible. Preferences for dominance in short-term mates were highest on cycle days when LH and FSH are typically peaking. These findings support the existence of two types of hormone-regulated psychological mechanisms, each of which is proposed by a distinct functional theory of menstrual phase preference shifts: (1) a between-cycle mechanism that increases preferences for dominance in long-term mates during more fertile cycles characterized by higher estrogen, and (2) a within-cycle mechanism that couples enhanced preferences for dominance in short-term mates to the timing of ovulation

Quelle: Estimated hormones predict women’s mate preferences for dominant personality traits (Volltext, PDF)

Hier die wesentlichen Daten:

3.2. Results for ratings of long-term mate attractiveness

Among the sub-sample of women not using hormonal contraceptives who rated traits for long-term mate attractiveness (n = 42), the zero-order correlation between estimated estrogen and dominance preference was marginally significant, r = .30, p = .057. However, the effect of estrogen became much stronger when dominance preferences were simultaneously regressed on all of the hormones presented in Table 1, b = .57, p = .008 (no other hormones exerted significant influences in this model). Fig. 2A suggests that this estrogen effect was generated as much by an elevation of dominance preferences in the mid-luteal phase (when estrogen is also elevated) as by an elevation during the fertile window; consistent with this, the size of the zero-order correlation between estrogen and dominance preference became slightly larger when analyses were restricted to women tested during the luteal phase (n = 17), r = .37, p = .145. 3.3.

Results for ratings of short-term mate attractiveness

A somewhat different pattern emerged among the sub-sample of women who rated traits for short-term mate attractiveness (n = 50). The zero-order correlation between estimated estrogen and dominance preference was positive but not significant, r = .22, p = .13, whereas both estimated LH, r = .31, p = .03, and estimated FSH, r = .30, p = .032 were significantly correlated with dominance preferences. When dominance preferences were regressed on all of the hormones presented in Table 1, there was a marginally significant positive effect only for LH, b = .47, p = .081. When FSH was substituted for LH in the model, FSH became the only significant predictor of dominance preferences, b = .44, p = .043 (the influence of estrogen in this model was positive but not significant, b = .33, p = .174). Fig. 2B suggests that this LH/FSH effect was likely a product of the sharp mid-cycle peak in dominance preferences seen among women rating for short-term mate attractiveness.

Die Schwankungen mit dem Hormonspiegel waren also nicht so stark, aber nachweisbar.

Aus der Diskussion:

Between-cycle theory proposes mechanisms that read estrogen concentrations as evidence of the fertility of a current cycle in order to up-regulate scrutiny of men’s sexual attractiveness in more vs. less fertile cycles. The theory posits a simple prediction that higher estrogen will be associated with stronger attraction to components of sexual attractiveness, regardless of whether the estrogen elevations occur during the fertile window. Our findings for ratings of long-term mate attractiveness (and for results collapsed across rating contexts) were consistent with this prediction, as we found elevated preferences for dominance on days when estrogen tends to be elevated, including during parts of the luteal phase when conception is not possible. Mixed-mating theory does not directly predict such luteal phase preference elevations, although the luteal phase patterns could be by-products of a mechanism that uses estrogen to index the timing of the fertile window. In sum, the results for ratings of long-term attractiveness were directly consistent with the predictions of between-cycle theory, but might also be explained as by-products of the mechanisms proposed by mixed-mating theory.

Preferences for dominance in short-term mates, on the other hand, were more tightly coupled to the fertile window, with a pronounced peak on the days that LH and FSH are typically peaking. This pattern is consistent with mixed-mating theory’s postulation of evaluative mechanisms that hone in on markers of phenotypic quality in potential sexual partners on the precise days of the cycle that conception is most likely. In conjunction with the findings for long-term ratings, then, our overall findings are consistent with the existence of two general types of mechanisms: a between-cycle mechanism that reads estrogen concentrations and operates specifically on judgments of potential long-term mates, and a within-cycle mechanism that reads hormonal signals associated with the fertile window and operates specifically on judgments of potential short-term sexual partners.

Es gibt also zwei interessante Punkte, bei denen Dominanz eine Rolle spielt: Einmal bei einer Langzeitbetrachtung, bei der die jeweilige allgemeine Fruchtbarkeit eine Rolle für die Bewertung der Attraktivität von Dominanz spielt und eine Kurzzeitbetrachtung, bei der die konkrete im Moment bestehende Fruchtbarkeit eine Rolle spielt. In beiden Fällen ist jeweils mit höherer Fruchtbarkeit Dominanz attraktiver.

Es wäre demnach zu vermuten, dass weiblicherer Frauen im Schnitt eher dominante Männer interessant finden, männlichere Frauen dies allerdings in einem geringeren Maße tun. Vielleicht auch ein Grund, warum diese Theorien im feministischen Bereich eher auf Unverständnis stoßen, da hier meiner Vermutung nach viele männlichere Frauen vorhanden sein müssten, da gerade diese die Geschlechterrollen als belastender empfinden sollten.

Die zweite Studie geht in die gleiche Richtung:

Women prefer both the scent of symmetrical men and masculine male faces more during the fertile (late follicular and ovulatory) phases of their menstrual cycles than during their infertile (e.g., luteal) phases. Men’s behavioral displays in social settings may convey signals that affect women’s attraction to men even more strongly. This study examined shifts in women’s preferences for these behavioral displays. A sample of 237 normally ovulating women viewed 36 or 40 videotaped men who were competing for a potential lunch date and then rated each man’s attractiveness as a short-term and a long-term mate. As predicted, women’s preference for men who displayed social presence and direct intrasexual competitiveness increased on high-fertility days relative to low-fertility days, but only in a short-term, not a long-term, mating context. These findings add to the growing literature indicating that women’s mate preferences systematically vary across the reproductive cycle.

Quelle: Women’s Preferences for Male Behavioral Displays Change Across the Menstrual Cycle

Also zumindest bezüglich der Kurzzeitstrategie ein ähnliches Ergebnis, wobei bei der anderen Studie insbesondere ein Hoch in der Mitte des Zyklus für die Langzeitstratgie und das Verhältnis von Dominanz interessant war.

Zu den Kriterien findet sich in der Studie das Folgende:

Although scent and facial attractiveness may importantly affect women’s attraction to men (Buss & Schmitt, 1993; Herz & Cahill, 1997; Regan & Berscheid, 1995), men’s behavior—how they interact with women and other men—may be even more important determinants of attraction. Women prefer men who display self-assurance and stand up for themselves with other men, but who exhibit warmth and agreeableness (e.g., Cunningham, Druen, & Barbee, 1997; Graziano, Jensen-Campbell, Todd, & Finch, 1997; Jensen-Campbell, Graziano, & West, 1995). The former attributes, which reflect intrasexual competitiveness, may partly function as signals of genetic benefits (i.e., broadly defined heritable condition) that are also conveyed by facial masculinity and developmental stability.

Auch hier findet sich also die Einteilung in Dominanz auf der anderen Seite aber komfortbezogene Elemente auf der einen Seite. Dominanz wird hier als Ausdruck der Fähigkeit beurteilt sich innerhalb einer intrasexuellen Konkurrenz durchzusezten, also gut darin zu sein, sich in einer Männergruppe und der dort herrschenden Konkurrenz durchzusetzen. Wer sich bewusst macht, wie wichtig für hierarchisch lebende Tiere die soziale Hierarchie ist, der erkennt auch schnell die Bedeutung der Domianz in diesem Bereich und dessen Wichtigkeit als Partnerwahlkriterium.

Hier die Werte in einer Tabelle:

Man sieht hier, dass sowohl Attraktivität als auch die Fähigkeit in intrasexueller Konkurrenz zu bestehen hohe Werte haben.

Eine weitere Studie behandelt das Thema unter dem hier bereits häufiger besprochenen „Nice Guy“ Oberbegriff:

Aus der Studie:

We examined whether or not different behavioral expressions of dominance by a male affected how introverted and extraverted women rated his sexual attractiveness. We assessed 81 women on the extraversion scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire–Revised Short Scale (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1991), and they then watched a 1-minute silent video of a male confederate in 3 dominance conditions (closed body posture [low], open body posture , and open body posture with gesticulation [high]) and rated the male for sexual attractiveness. Results showed that higher dominance behavior significantly increased the confederate’s attractiveness, accounting for 10% of the variance in attractiveness ratings. However, the women’s personalities appeared to have no significant effect on these ratings. These results are discussed in relation to extant literature on the phenomenon that women do not select “nice guys” in preference to other men.

Quelle: DO WOMEN PREFER “NICE GUYS”? THE EFFECT OF MALE DOMINANCE BEHAVIOR ON WOMEN’S RATINGS OF SEXUAL ATTRACTIVENESS

Aus der Studie:

The results showed only partial support for our hypotheses. First, we found a significant main effect of the dominance condition on ratings of attractiveness, which generally supports previous research in which similar experimental methods were used (e.g., Renninger et al., 2004; Sadalla et al., 1987). It is noteworthy that, even in this highly controlled experimental setting, slight changes to the posture (i.e., sitting position) of a male significantly increased his levels of attractiveness. This indicates that women may use simple nonverbal signals of dominance as criteria for male attractiveness. Thus, our results contribute to extant literature on the “nice guys finish last” phenomenon by showing that dominant body postures do result in higher ratings of sexual attractiveness. Of course, this is not to argue that other variables, such as prosocial orientation, do not mediate these results. Rather, when operationalized independently, dominant nonverbal behavior appears to increase women’s ratings of men’s attractiveness. Neither a significant main effect of participant personality nor a significant interaction between personality and dominance conditions was found. These results suggest that extraverted and introverted women both perceive dominant men as being higher in sexual attractiveness. It may be the case that dominance, as an interpersonal trait, is a desirable trait, regardless of the observer’s personality

Auch hier zeigt sich also, dass dominantere Männer als attraktiver wahrgenommen werden, und dies wohl übereinstimmend über die verschiedenen Persönlichkeiten der Frauen.

Angesichts der Bedeutung der intrasexuellen Konkurrenz nicht verwunderlich.

Die dunkle Triade („Dark Triad“) als evolutionäre Kurzzeitpaarungsstrategie

Ein interessantes Konzept ist die „dunkle Triade“:

The Dark Triad is a group of three personality traits: narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy, all of which are interpersonally aversive.[1][2][3] The Dark Triad refers to three theoretically distinct but empirically overlapping personality constructs.[4][5] The term reflects the perception that these three diagnostic categories, have at least some common underlying factors:[6][7] The narcissistic personality (in the clinical sense) is characterized by a grandiose self-view, a sense of entitlement, lack of empathy, and egotism. On some theories, such as Kohut’s, it is associated with protection of a radically weak, shamed, or damaged self.[8] The Machiavellian personality is characterized by manipulation and exploitation of others, with a cynical disregard for morality and a focus on self-interest and deception.[9] The psychopath, or antisocial personality, is characterized by impulsive thrill-seeking, and in its „primary“ form by selfishness, callousness, lack of personal affect, superficial charm, and remorselessness. All three characters involve a callous-manipulative interpersonal style,[10] and are considered aversive. Jakobwitz and Egan carried out a factor analysis and found agreeableness strongly dissociated with all dark triad personality types, but other factors (neuroticism, lack of conscientiousness) were associated only with some members of the triad. However, more recent evidence suggests that agreeableness has nothing to do with the core of the Dark Triad. Instead the common variance is accounted for by callousness and manipulation,[11] otherwise known as „Factor 1“ of psychopathy according to Hare.[12] In other words, once callousness and manipulation are accounted for, the Dark Triad are unrelated to each other.

Es sind also bestimmte Persönlichkeitsmerkmale, die gerade in der Kombination eine gewisse Wirkung entfalten sollen. Zur Herleitung hat die Wikipedia das Folgende:

Most work on the Dark Triad points to correlations with aggression,[28] racism,[29] and bullying.[30] for evidence of the aversive nature of these traits. In general, most researchers treat these traits as pathological, something that needs to be treated, and inherently bad. However, some argue that this view of the traits is the result of researchers having an implicit group selection orientation towards personality traits. [edit]As mating strategy Moreover, the time-course of the benefits are an important consideration. These traits appear to predispose individuals to short-term rewards and relationships over long-term rewards and benefits. Although advanced societies attempt to promote long-term thinking (environmental protection, saving money for retirement), there are reproductive benefits for the individual for thinking and acting on a shorter time-course.[31] Consistent with this perspective, those high on the Dark Triad tend to have an accelerated mating strategy, reporting more sex partners, more favorable attitudes towards casual sex,[31] lowered standards in their short-term mates,[32] a tendency to steal or poach mates from others,[33] more risk-taking in the form of substance abuse,[34] a tendency to prefer immediate but smaller amounts of money over delayed but larger amounts of money,[35] limited self-control and ADHD symptoms[36] and a pragmatic and game-playing love style.[37] These traits have been identified as part of a fast life strategy that appears to be enacted by an exploitative, opportunistic, and protean approach to life in general[38] and at work.[39] However, the research pertaining to the Dark Triad as a mating strategy is based almost exclusively on college students, which limites generalizability. Further, there is research to suggest empirical inconsistency. For example, using established measures of the Dark Triad, these traits are not universally short term oriented [40] nor are they all impulsive.[41] In addition, much of the research reported pertaining to the Dark Triad cited in the above paragraph is based on statistical procedures that erroneously assume the Dark Triad are a single construct, in spite of genetic [42] and meta-analytic evidence to the contrary.[43] Readers are especially cautioned against drawing conclusions based on research that: (a) is solely represented by student samples while claiming to study evolutionary or mating research, (b) rely only on self-report data when analyzing personality traits known for interpersonal deception.

Zu dem Thema auch die folgenden Artikel:

Heartiste fasst es wie folgt:

Narcisisstic, irrational self-confidence is more attractive to women than modest, rational defeatism. (See: Poon Commandment XI) – Being a rule breaker (a form of psychopathy) is attractive to women. (Playing by the rules will win you plaudits from polite society, but it won’t help you get pussy.) – Using people for personal gain is attractive to women – The Dark Triad works best for short term sexual hookups (the kinds of mating opportunities most men would jump at if they were easy to get). LTRs require a small but significant infusion of beta provider game to remain healthy and satisfying for any woman – Being disagreeable (an asshole, that is) is attractive to women. – Being power-hungry is attractive to women. – Never sweating the small stuff is attractive to women. – In other words, being an aloof, uncaring asshole — an amalgamation of all the above traits — makes you optimally attractive to the greatest number of hot chicks. – Contrary to feminist flailing to gender equalize the attractiveness of assholes by claiming that men prefer bitches, this study conclusively shows that the Dark Triad suite of asshole traits works better for men than it does for women. That is, men don’t dig bitches. – None of the above would ever be admitted by women, so don’t bother asking them.

Hier noch zwei Studien zu dem Thema:

This survey (N ¼ 224) found that characteristics collectively known as the Dark Triad (i.e. narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism) were correlated with various dimensions of short-term mating but not long-term mating. The link between the Dark Triad and shortterm mating was stronger for men than for women. The Dark Triad partially mediated the sex difference in short-term mating behaviour. Findings are consistent with a view that the Dark Triad facilitates an exploitative, short-term mating strategy in men. Possible implications, including that Dark Triad traits represent a bundle of individual differences that promote a reproductively adaptive strategy are discussed. Findings are discussed in the broad context of how an evolutionary approach to personality psychology can enhance our understanding of individual differences

Quelle:   The Dark Triad: Facilitating a Short-Term Mating Strategy in Men (Volltext/PDF)

Und die zweite Studie:

The Dark Triad – narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy – have traditionally been considered to be undesirable traits. However, emerging work suggest that not only may there be a positive side to possessing these traits but they may also serve important adaptive functions, even if the strategies associated with them are viewed as socially undesirable. In an online survey (N = 336), we investigated the costs and benefits of the Dark Triad within the domain of mating psychology. The social style and lower order personality traits of the Dark Triad traits facilitated increased mateships in the form of poaching mates from others and being poached oneself to form mateships, pointing to possible benefits of possessing the Dark Triad traits. However, the costside was evidenced with rates of mates abandoning their current relationship for a new one. Mate retention is a problem faced by those with these traits and the tactics used to retain mates were characteristic of the Dark Triad: aggressive and narcisstic. Results are discussed using an adaptionist paradigm

Quelle: The costs and benefits of the Dark Triad: Implications for mate poaching and mate retention tactics

Gerade die letzte Studie macht deutlich, dass es eine Kurzzeitstrategie ist. Die Männer werden in der Regel eben auch schnell wieder verlassen, weil sie nicht ausgeglichen genug sind.

Frauen, die auf Gewaltverbrecher stehen (Hybristophilia)

Nach jedem Massenmord, insbesondere solchen mit „Botschaft“  liest man irgendwann die gleiche Schlagzeile: Der inhaftierte Massenmörder bekommt Liebesbriefe in die Zelle und Frauen bekunden, dass sie ihn anziehend finden.

Das Phänomen hat einen Namen: Hybristophilia:

Hybristophilia „is a paraphilia of the predatory type in which sexual arousal, facilitation, and attainment of orgasm are responsive to and contingent upon being with a partner known to have committed an outrage, or crime, such as rape, murder, or armed robbery.“ The term is derived from the Greek word „hybridzein,“ meaning „to commit an outrage against someone,“ and „philo,“ meaning „having a strong affinity preference for.“

In popular culture, this phenomenon is also known as „Bonnie and Clyde Syndrome“.

Many high-profile criminals, particularly those who have committed atrocious crimes, receive „fan mail“ in prison which is sometimes amorous or sexual, presumably as a result of this phenomenon. In some cases, admirers of these criminals have gone on to marry the object of their affections in prison.

Die Wikipedia hat auch einiges an Beispielen:

  • The phenomenon of Charles Manson and Columbine High School shooters Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold groupies are also examples of hybristophilia.[3]
  • One of the most infamous examples of hybristophilia is the large number of women attracted to Ted Bundy after his arrest.[4] Bundy allegedly received hundreds of love letters from women while he was incarcerated.
  • Jeffrey Dahmer, a serial killer, is said to have had amorous women sending him letters, money, and other gifts during his time in prison.
  • Serial killer Richard Ramirez married a female groupie in prison who had written him over 75 letters. During his trial, dozens of women flocked to the courtroom to catch a glimpse of him.
  • Rapist Josef Fritzl, who detained his daughter in a dungeon for 24 years, received hundreds of love letters from women following his arrest

Wer einige der Briefe lesen will, der findet Auszüge bei Roissy in dem Artikel „Chicks Dig Jerks: A Series

Auch die feministische Seite Jezebel hat etwas dazu geschrieben (via Genderama und Arne Hoffmann, der das Thema an mich weitergegeben hat):

Also known as „Bonnie and Clyde syndrome,“ it goes beyond the „bad boy“ appeal to which many women are drawn at some point in their lives. While hybristophilia is considered by some experts to be a potentially lethal form of sexual expression—as associating with known serial killers tends to be—Arthur Aron, a psychology professor at the State University of New York-Stonybrook says that for some, a relationship with someone imprisoned for life is actually safer, emotionally.

„For some people it’s threatening to be intimate,“ he says, „And a relationship with an incarcerated partner may give these people the sense of control they want or need when it comes to emotional closeness.“

Statistics show that male inmates are more likely to gain groupies and have romantic relationships with pen pals than female prisoners. This could be because men are 11 times more likely to be incarcerated than women, but whatever the case, those who commit the most violent, gruesome crimes—murder and rape—enjoy the most attention from „fans.“

Und das ist auch der Grund, warum nach meiner Meinung die Erklärung, dass Frauen nur die Sicherheit des Gefängnisses suchen, nicht wirklich überzeugend ist. Dazu wären auch weniger brutale Verbrechen geeignet. Es scheint mir eher ein Zusammenhang mit der verübten Gewalt zu bestehen.

Bei Heartist gibt es diesen Abschnitt in einem Beitrag zu Liebesbriefen an Breivik:

If “saving” or “healing” broken men was the prime motivation explaining women’s lust for assholes, then we would see women saving and healing all those unfortunate victims of a psychopath’s rampage. Not to mention, there are a lot more beatdown betas who are in need of saving via pussy therapy than there are happy-go-lucky alphas.

Which of course puts the lie to the feminist and mangina explanation for women’s attraction to jerks and thugs. While the savior complex may explain, in part, women’s craven desire, it is not the primary or sole explanation, or even a very important one. As everyday observation to those with the eyes to see demonstrates, the primary motivation is women’s love for unrepentant, rule-breaking assholes. That is the elemental, core female hindbrain algorithm that governs all other lustful dispositions and is the catalyst for her mate choice decisions.

Women love assholes because they are assholes. Because it inspires in women those emotions that most delight their pleasure centers. And that, based on the reaction it engenders from civilized men and women alike, is the truth too scary to contemplate.

Ich denke, dass viele brutale Männer eine gewisse Ausstrahlung auf gewisse Frauen haben.  Einzelgänger, verwegene Typen, dass alles hat einen gewissen sexuellen Aspekt, kann etwas sexuelles haben.

Zu Frauen stehen auf Arschlöcher verweise ich auf die folgenden Artikel:

Eine andere Auffassung fand sich dort in den Kommentaren mit Verweis auf ein Video:

I have a theory about killer groupies. Although the stereotype that “women are less violent than men” is thrown around without examination, I don’t think it’s entirely true. I think there’s an equal number of men and women per capita with latent sadistic/destructive urges; women just lack the testosterone-based aggression to act on them as often. These women will instead attach themselves to dangerous men in order to experience the vicarious frisson of eroticized violence. They get all the thrill and none of the consequences, like eager remora attached to the great white alpha sharks.

Women like this would have no interest at all in betas, and in fact would probably harbor a subconscious desire to kill them. The sad irony is that they actually create more serial killers. How much pussy do you think a bitter introvert like Breivik was getting before his crimes?

Listen to to the ecstatic tones of her voice as she rhapsodizes over her boyfriends’ evil crimes. Does anyone doubt that Sondra London wishes she could go on a killing spree herself?

Interessant wie sie die Sache mit Status verbindet und darstellt, den „besseren Serienmörder“ zu haben. Ich kann mir vorstellen, dass es Frauen anzieht, die gerade übertriebener Gewalt einen hohen Status zuweisen und den Gedanken verführend finden, dass sie eine Verbindung zu einem solchen Ungeheuer haben.

Vielleicht ist es ein gewisser Schutzmechanismus für einige Frauen gewesen, sich mit dem aggressivsten, brutalsten Mann einzulassen, gerade wenn er, wie in der Gefängnissituation, etwas gebändigt erscheint. Ein Freund, den alle gefährlich finden, möchte eben niemand provozieren, was evolutionäre Vorteile bringen kann.