In dem Google Manifesto war auch angeführt worden, dass ein Unterschied zwischen den Geschlechtern im Bereich Neurotizismus oder emotionaler Labilität besteht.
Hier eine Studie dazu:
ABSTRACT. Mean gender differences on Eysenck’s three personality traits of extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism were collated for 37 nations. Women obtained higher means than men on neuroticism in all countries, and men obtained higher means than women on psychoticism in 34 countries and on extraversion in 30 countries. The relation between the magnitude of the gender differences and per capita incomes was not significant for any of the three traits.
Die Unterschiede zeigen sich also weltweit, aber das Patriarchat ist ja auch überall.
Hier die Werte aus der Studie:
Man sieht eine Vielzahl verschiedener Werte, bei denen sich aber mal ein größerer, mal ein kleinerer Abstand zwischen den Geschlechtern zeigt, aber üblicherweise eben ein Abstand zwischen den Geschlechtern besteht.
Aus der Studie:
We examined the relationship between the magnitude of the gender differences on the three personality traits and per capita incomes as indexed by GDP.
We expected that the gender differences might be greater in more traditional, economically developing countries such as Bangladesh, Nigeria, and Uganda, where differences in norms for sex roles are generally greater, than in developed countries like the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom, with their much greater equality between the sexes. However, the correlations between the magnitude of the gender differences and the national GDP were not statistically
significant for any of the three traits.
The most striking feature of the results is the consistency of women’s higher means on neuroticism and men’s higher means on psychoticism in such a wide range of countries, all at such different stages of economic development. Also, our samples were drawn from all continents except South America. This consistency suggests the possibility that these gender differences may have a genetic basis, as proposed by Maccoby and Jacklin (1974) in reference to to the apparent
universality of the greater aggressiveness of men.
In reicheren Ländern zeigt sich also ebenso ein Unterschied wie in ärmeren Ländern.
Eine andere Studie untersucht das Entstehen:
Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3, McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850) and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents’ personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that
(1) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge towards adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude;
(2) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and
(3) the emergence of sex differences was similar across culture. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed.
Mädchen werden also eher erwachsen, wie es bei einer Spezies mit einer Vergangenheit in starker körperlicher intrasexueller Konkurrenz in einem Geschlecht häufig. Die Entwicklung verläuft in allen Kulturen relativ gleich.
Eine andere Studie findet ich in dem Zusammenhang auch interessant:
Existent research documents an unclear and contradictory pattern between cortisol and personality variables, especially neuroticism. Specifically, no effect, positive correlations and negative correlations have all been reported to exist between cortisol and neuroticism. The current study tested whether males and females have a fundamentally different relationship between HPA activation and neuroticism and if this
might partially account for some of the discrepancy in findings. Saliva samples (n = 183) for cortisol were collected three times across a 90 min period. Neuroticism was measured via the NEO-FFI. For men, neuroticism was positively correlated with cortisol level (r = .29). For women it was negatively correlated.
The negative correlation between neuroticism and cortisol level remained when oral contraceptive use was statistically controlled, and the statistical significance actually increased (partial r = −.20). This suggests a slight suppressor effect, explainable by prior research on correlates of oral contraceptive use.
Overall, these findings may offer some explanation for the discrepant results that have been reported in the existing literature regarding neuroticism and cortisol measures
Bei Frauen würde also ein geringerer Cortisol-Spiegel weniger Neuroticism bedeuten, bei Männern ist es umgekehrt.
Cortisol: This stress hormone may also influence us politically, according to recent research by Hibbing and his collaborators. „You can see people’s cortisol levels go up dramatically when you stress them out,“ Hibbing says—for instance, by requiring them to prepare to give a speech that is going to be videotaped. „We are finding there are relationships between cortisol and not voting. Those people who don’t vote are the people who tend to have fairly high cortisol levels. Because politics is pretty stressful.“
Wenn ich das richtig verstehe, dann sind damit gestresste Frauen neurozentrischer und gestresste Männer weniger neurozentrisch.