Die Wahrnehmung von Jungen mit gewalttätigen Einstellungen und Verhaltensweisen sowie von sexueller Anziehung durch Mädchen

Eine interessante Studie von drei Frauen untersucht die Zusammenhänge zwischen gewalttätigen Einstellungen und Handlungen und sexueller Attraktivität:

Violence against women is a reality that is still present in Europe and a serious public health threat worldwide. Fortunately, investment is being made to raise awarness at the national and EU levels and among diverse publics. However, more research is needed in order to better explain its underlying factors, and thus identify effective actions that could contribute to preventing young girls and women from becoming victims. Drawing on a theoretical approach to the preventive socialization of gender violence, in this study we report data from the quasi-experimental research project ‘Free Teen Desire’ (Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant, 2015–2016, No 659299). Through a survey conducted on 100 female adolescents (aged 13–16) in different European secondary schools (in England, Spain, Cyprus and Finland), we analysed their pattern of attraction for both ‘hooking up’ and stable relationships towards boys with either violent attitudes and behaviour or boys with non-violent behaviour, what would be linked to gender violence victimization at a later stage in their lives. Our findings suggest that in the different European secondary schools studied, a similar pattern of attraction is recognized by female participants: although non-violent boys are highly preferred to those with a violent profile, we observed that boys with violent attitudes and behaviours are mostly preferred for hooking up, and boys with non-violent traits are mostly preferred for stable relationships. In addition to the novelty of providing quantitative data on these links (non-violent/stable relationships; violent/hook-ups) in the case of adolescents, the findings regarding the pattern of attraction towards boys with violent traits for sporadic relationships are in line with previous extensive qualitative research. This body of research marks the existence of a coercive dominant discourse that associates attraction with violence and influences the socialization processes of many girls during their sexual-affective relationships’ awakening, which has been shown to constitute a risk factor for gender violence victimization.

Quelle: Girls’ perceptions of boys with violent attitudes and behaviours, and of sexual attraction

Aus der Studie:

Research in the field of psychology has also studied how, under certain conditions, aggressive men and those men considered more masculine are preferred to other men. Giebel and colleagues (2013) conducted a study in which they analysed whether appetitive aggression in men serves as an additional signal for a favoured partner choice. The authors defined appetitive aggression as ‘the intrinsic motivation to act violently even when not being threatened’ (p. 248). Testing participating women’s responses in relation to different descriptions regarding a soldier’s experience after returning from war, they observed that the preference for the ‘warrior’ was higher for women in their fertile window of the menstrual cycle and for short-term relationships. Accordingly, their findings reveal that women preferred a soldier higher in appetitive aggression as a short-term mate but not as a partner in a long-term relationship.

In another research study, Giebel et al. (2015) investigated personality traits and to what extent these traits predict the desire to choose a dominant partner. The authors observed that those individuals who declared wanting to avoid boredom and looked for exciting social activities have a stronger desire for a dominant partner. According to this study, those perceived as dominant are considered more interesting, attractive and appealing for people with higher boredom susceptibility. Additionally, people who like new and exciting social activities such as parties, social drinking and casual sex also prefer a dominant partner. In a similar vein to this investigation, Houser et al. (2015) observed that dating preferences were positively correlated with popularity, social preference and overt and relational aggression. Popular and overtly aggressive girls were seen as desirable dating partners by their male peers, and relational aggression was linked with dating popularity for both boys and girls.

Also die Einstellung, dass dominante bzw gewalttätige Männer eher etwas für eine Kurzzeitstrategie sind und das Leben mit ihnen weniger langweilig ist.

und weiter:

Within the field of criminology, many researchers are advancing knowledge about the risk factors that may lead to dating violence. In this regard, Rebellon and Manasse (2004) investigated the association between delinquency and other risk-taking behaviours with dating behaviour among adolescents, showing that delinquency serves to increase romantic involvement. According to their results, risk-taking adolescents attract the romantic interest of others, and such attention may provide indirect reinforcement for delinquency among both male and female adolescents. In a different study about risk factors for first time sexual assault, Bramsen et al. revealed that the 6-month period following the 15th birthday is characterized by a high risk for initial sexual victimization by peers (Bramsen et al., 2012, p. 524). Authors identified two elements that predicted initial adolescent peer-on-peer sexual victimization (APSV): first, the number of sexual partners, and second, sexual risk behaviours that place girls in close association or proximity to potential offenders.

„Risiken eingehen“ passt natürlich gut zu der Gefahr von Gewalt. Und die Anzahl von Sexualpartnern auch: Um so mehr Sexualpartner um so größer die Gefahr, dass ein aggressiver dabei ist.

Und die eigentliche Vorgehensweise:

The Vignette-Test designed for the Free_Teen_Desire project consisted of a set of three types of vignettes (A-B-C) distributed among the different students’ groups/countries. For the study we are reporting here, we worked with the vignettes set C. Each set of Vignette-Test consisted of four different vignettes. Each one portrayed a boy with a brief description, mainly in terms of his attractiveness and his behaviour and attitudes regarding women. Two of the vignettes (boy 1 and boy 3) each portrayed a picture of a boy accompanied by a brief narrative which included some sentences on behaviours and attitudes considered to be violence against women by international scientific literature (Banyard et al., 2005; Fisher et al., 1999; Kalof et al., 2001; Gross et al., 2006). The other two vignettes also portrayed two different pictures accompanied with a description that included non-sexist behaviours (boy 2 and boy 4).

The two boys’ profiles classified as the ones with violent attitudes and behaviours in the Vignettes set C were described as follows:

Boy 1. He is a funny bastard. He seems disinterested in girls and can’t even remember their names after hooking up with them… In fact, he laughs at his friends who act like that… by that point some girls want to be with him again, and he disdains them persistently. He is not as sensible and good as his friends are, but his strong temper makes him somebody interesting to be discovered. Lots have tried to. He is someone to be rescued. He has a difficult personality.

Puh, da ist vieles drin. „Funny Bastard“ an sich könnte etwas sein, was Frauen interessiert, und dann ignoriert er auch noch Frauen, also ein klassisches Verhalten eines Mannes, den viele Frauen interessant finden. Und das wird noch dadurch interessiert, dass er dennoch „hook Ups“ hat. Und die wollen ihn anscheinend auch noch einmal sehen. Er ist nicht sensibel (also ja dann wohl voller toxischer Männlichkeit). Starkes Temperament, jemanden, den man entdecken muss, viele haben es versucht. Er muss gerettet werden. Er ist schwierig.

Boy 3. You want not to like him but his hypnotic eyes will hook you. You will probably be just another girl he’s been with but most are not ashamed to admit they dream to be the one to save him. Despite the fact that he has touched them without consent, they believe they can change him. He’s totally the hottest boy. His personality is scary, but it will make you drool.

Du willst ihn nicht mögen, aber du kannst nicht anders ist allein schon sehr gut. Die Augen zeichnen ein gutes Bild. Auch hier wieder: Andere Frauen waren schon da und haben es nicht geschafft. Und „Sie wollten ihn und er hat sie berührt ohne nach ihrer Zustimmung zu fragen“ wird auch kaum eine Frau abschrecken, wenn sie einen Mann vor Augen haben, der sie ruhig berühren soll. Und da dürfte der „er ist der heißeste Junge“ das passende Bild zeichenen. „Seine Persönlichkeit ist angsteinflößend, aber er wird dich sabern lassen“ ist auch schön.

On the other hand, the two boys’ profiles described as non-violent in the Vignettes set C were presented in the following way:

Boy 2. He is the boy every girl dreams to be with for the rest of her life; well-mannered, courteous, respectful of everyone. He knows how to treat girls as queens. He cares and is attentive. My friends say it’s a pity he is not manlier.

Traummann, aber er könnte männlicher sein. Dafür aber respektvoll, gutes Benehmen, er behandelt Frauen wie Königinnen. Ebenfalls attraktiv. Es fehlt die Beschreibung wie er sonst bei Frauen ankommt, die in den anderen Texten vorhanden war.

Boy 4. Open and friendly, he makes girls feel comfortable. He’s nice, funny, dedicated and makes interesting conversations. He is the good-hearted guy that mothers love.

Diese positiven Texte sind brutal. „Ein Typ, den Mütter lieben“. Er ist nett, man fühlt sich wohl. Nichts über seine positive Wirkung auf Frauen. Er ist im Gegensatz zu anderen noch nicht einmal attraktiv.

Die Studie kommt in einigen Bereichen etwas feministisch daher, aber sie wäre auch nicht schlecht um Toxische Männlichkeit gegen Männer zu stellen, die dieser gerade nicht entsprechen.

Participants had to respond to six different questions related to their own interest, the interest of their friends and the interest of ‘other girls they know’ in either hooking up or establishing a relationship with the boys portrayed in the vignettes:

(1)Would you like to hook up with him at a party?
(2)Would you like to have a relationship with him?
(3)Would your friends like to hook up with him at a party?
(4)Would your friends like to have a relationship with him?
(5)Would other girls you know like to hook up with him at a party?
(6)Would other girls you know like to have a relationship with him?

Thus, drawing on the data collected, we wanted to examine the different female adolescents’ preferences between two opposed boys’ profiles described in the vignettes, those males with violent attitudes and behaviours and those males who were non-violent, for two different types of relationships: hooking up or a stable relationship. In addition, differences when answering considering their own preferences, the preferences that the female adolescents thought that their friends would have, and the ones that ‘other girls they know’ would have were tested in searching for any relevant contrast. To collect the answers, we used a Likert scale with 6-positions (from 1 meaning “totally not”, to 6 meaning “totally yes.”). It took approximately 10 to 15 min to respond to all the questions included in the survey.

Die Fragen finde ich ganz interessant, weil sie ganz verschiedene Bereiche enthalten, gerade die Unterscheidung „findest du ihn attraktiv“ und „würden andere Frauen ihn attraktiv finden“

At the core of identifying these violent situations lies the idea suggested by some authors, that victimization and revictimization are either caused by an impaired ability to recognize potentially threatening situations (Bramsen et al., 2011; Messman-Moore and Brown, 2006) or are a function of how youths perceive common dating risk situations that may place them at risk not only of suffering dating violence but also a variety of other problematic behaviours (Helm et al., 2015). In this line, it has also been suggested that among those adolescents with high acceptance of dating aggression, peer aggression and delinquency significantly predicted recurrent aggression in a new relationship (Williams et al., 2008).

Das wären ja in gewisser Weise auch Bestätigungen der These, dass einige Frauen dann, wenn sie sich von einem aggressiven Partner trennen, wieder bei einem neuen aggressiven Partner landen.

Research has also found that some adolescents tend to maintain violent dating relationships that become chronic, and some teens engage in multiple violent relationships in which the severity of violence increases from the first to subsequent relationships (Burke Draucker et al., 2012). There is evidence that intimate partner violence and violence in hook-ups is widespread among adolescents and young adults and leads to a life trajectory that includes violence, either as victims or perpetrators (Bramsen et al., 2011; Burke Draucker et al., 2012; Exner-Cortens et al. 2013; Lundgren and Amin, 2015). As mentioned above, peer influences and attitudes towards violence (e.g., acceptance of rape myths, tolerance of violence, and justification of using violence) appear to be the most extensively evidenced risk factors for dating violence perpetration (Bramsen et al., 2011; Tapp and Moore, 2016).

Interessante Studien. Ich hatte mal vermutet, dass einige Frauen mit Gewalterfahrung einfach auch ihre Vorstellungen davon ändern, was ein für sie „echter Mann“ ist und das sie daher „härtere Männer“ brauchen, weil sie die verachten, die sich gegen sie nicht „durchsetzen“ können. Wäre interessant das mit einer Studie zu testen. Aber das ist nicht Gegenstand dieser Studie.

Aus den Ergebnissen:

Die meisten Frauen sind also bei den Männern für sich selbst relativ zurückhaltend, auch wenn sie eher etwas unverbindliches als etwas verbindliches mit ihnen wollen, sie kennen aber Frauen, für die genau diese Männer anscheinend sehr interessant sind. Der erste gewalttätige Mann schneidet dabei wesentlich schlechter ab als der zweite. Die „er braucht eine Frau, die ihn rettet“ Figur scheint zu funktionieren.

Insgesamt schneiden aber die „Nicht gewalttätigen Männer“ in vielen Bereichen besser ab, was ja auch angesichts der Beschreibungen der Schwierigkeiten trotz ihrer „Gegengewichtung“ durch andere Faktoren zu erwarten ist.

Dazu kommt, das Befragungen natürlich rationalere Ergebnisse bringen als tatsächliche Ereignisse. Es ist unvernünftig mit einen Mann, der so viele Anzeichen für Schwierigkeiten hat, etwas anzufangen. Aber Verstand ist natürlich auch etwas anderes als Begehren. Das sind Emotionen.  Daher kommt vielleicht auch der realtiv hohe Wert an Leuten, die angegeben haben, dass sie jemanden kennen, der interessiert wäre






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