Ein interessanter Artikel zu den Auswirkungen von Robotern:
Workplace robots have decreased the gender pay gaps in some industries because they are taking away jobs mostly done by men, a study has discovered.
This has closed the gap in pay and also made women less likely to want to marry and have children, researchers found.
The study suggests this is because both men and women are now doing the same jobs and in turn being paid the same in the wake of campaigns of gender equity in the workforce.
In 741 US regions exposed to industrial robots, they discovered a ‘significant’ statistical decline in gender inequity in income.
Every 1.9 additional robots per 1,000 workers decreased the gender income gap by 4.2 per cent and the workforce participation gender gap by 2.1 per cent.
However, this is against the average of women earning 84 per cent of what men earn in full and part-time jobs in the US.
The researchers also compared where robots had entered the labour market and found changes in family and fertility behaviours.
While there was no decrease in children being born, babies in wedlock decreased by 12 per cent and there was a 15 per cent increase in nonmarital births.
An increase in robot exposure were associated with a one per cent reduction in marriage rate, a nine per cent increase in divorces and a 10 per cent increase in the likelihood of couples living together without getting married.
Das sind erst einmal sehr interessante Effekte. Eine gesteigerte Scheidungsrate könnte sich daraus ergeben, dass Leute arbeitslos werden. Vielleicht heiraten die Leute in unsicheren Zeiten auch weniger, die evtl dadurch entstehen, dass ein bestimmter Anteil von Arbeitern entlassen wird und durch Roboter ersetzt wird.
Hier noch der Link auf die eigentliche Studie:
Robots have radically changed the demand for skills and the role of workers in production. This phenomenon has replaced routine and mostly physical work of blue collar workers, but it has also created positive employment spillovers in other occupations and sectors that require more social interaction and managing skills. This study examines how the exposure to robots and its heterogeneous effects on the labor market opportunities of men and women affected demographic behavior. We focus on the United States and find that in regions that were more exposed to robots, gender gaps in income and labor force participation declined, reducing the relative economic stature of men. Regions affected by intense robot penetration experienced also an increase in both divorce and cohabitation and a decline –albeit non-significant– in the number of marriages. While there was no change in the overall fertility rate, marital fertility declined, and there was an increase in nonmarital births. Our findings provide support to the hypothesis that changes in labor market structures that affect the absolute and relative prospects of men may reduce their marriage-market value and affect marital and fertility behavior.
Quelle: Robots, Marriageable Men, Family, and Fertility *
Aber weiter in dem Artikel:
Dr Osea Giuntella, assistant professor in economics at the University of Pittsburgh, said: ‘There has been an intense debate on the effects of robotics and automation on labour market outcomes, but we still know little about how these structural economic changes are reshaping key life-course choices.
‘Our study shows the exposure to robots’ competition affected the relative labour market opportunities of men and women.
‘Male income fell at a substantially higher rate than female income, decreasing the gender income gap.
Dazu aus der Studie:
Columns 1–3 show that the effect of robots on male income (-5.8%, see column 2) is substantially larger than that on female income (-1.6%, see column 1). This drives the gender income-gap (defined as the ratio between male and female income) down by 4.2% in areas that were more exposed to robot penetration.14
Also letztendlich ein Vorgang bei dem Männer und Frauen verlieren, auch wenn es den Unterschied zwischen den Geschlechtern kleiner macht. Armut ist ja ohnehin der beste Reduzierer des Gender Pay Gaps.
‘Moreover, robot exposure has increased female labour force participation significantly while leaving the labour force participation of men unchanged.
‘We argue that these labour market effects affected men’s marriageability and women’s willingness to long-term commitments with a decline in marriages and marital fertility.’
He added: ‘Our findings add to a long-standing discussion on the effects of technology – household appliances, medical progress, etc. – on family and fertility decisions by focusing on a more recent wave of technological changes, particularly the development of robotics and automation.
‘Those technological changes, instead of directly affecting fertility and family choices, might disrupt them by profoundly changing employment opportunities for both women and men.’
Das kommt natürlich darauf an, ob man gleichzeitig die Roboter noch Produziert bzw entwickelt, was auch ein sehr männerlastiger Bereich sein wird und wahrscheinlich eine höhere technische Qualifikation erfordert.
Es macht aber auch wieder deutlich, dass eine Angleichung des Gender Pay Gaps, schon gar nicht eine Angleichung durch beiderseitiges, wenn auch bei den Frauen schwächeres, Absinken der Gehälter gar nicht unbedingt zum Vorteil der Frauen sein muss, die ja auch ein Interesse an ansonsten stabilen Umständen haben.