Da es gestern ja auch schon Thema war und ich häufiger für Diskussionen einen Artikel bräuchte, der da ein paar Studien zusammenfasst mache ich heute einmal einen solchen Artikel:
1. Men and Things, Women and People: A Meta-Analysis of Sex Differences in Interests
The magnitude and variability of sex differences in vocational interests were examined in the present meta-analysis for Holland’s (1959, 1997) categories (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional), Prediger’s (1982) Things–People and Data–Ideas dimensions, and the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) interest areas. Technical manuals for 47 interest inventories were used, yielding 503,188 respondents. Results showed that men prefer working with things and women prefer working with people, producing a large effect size (d 0.93) on the Things–People dimension. Men showed stronger Realistic (d 0.84) and Investigative (d 0.26) interests, and women showed stronger Artistic (d 0.35), Social (d 0.68), and Conventional (d 0.33) interests. Sex differences favoring men were also found for more specific measures of engineering (d 1.11), science (d 0.36), and mathematics (d 0.34) interests. Average effect sizes varied across interest inventories, ranging from 0.08 to 0.79. The quality of interest inventories, based on professional reputation, was not differentially related to the magnitude of sex differences. Moderators of
the effect sizes included interest inventory item development strategy, scoring method, theoretical framework, and sample variables of age and cohort. Application of some item development strategies can substantially reduce sex differences. The present study suggests that interests may play a critical role in gendered occupational choices and gender disparity in the STEM fields.
2. Lippa: Gender-related individual differences and the structure of vocational interests: The importance of the people–things dimension.
In 3 studies (respective Ns = 289, 394, and 1,678), males and females were assessed on Big Five traits, masculine instrumentality (M), feminine expressiveness (F), gender diagnosticity (GD), and RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) vocational interest scales. Factor analyses of RIASEC scores consistently showed evidence for D. J. Prediger’s (1982) People–Things and Ideas–Data dimensions, and participants‘ factor scores on these dimensions were computed. In all studies Big Five Openness was related to Ideas–Data but not to People–Things. Gender was strongly related to People–Things but not to Ideas–Data. Within each sex, GD correlated strongly with People–Things but not with Ideas–Data. M, F, and Big Five measures other than Openness tended not to correlate strongly with RIASEC scales or dimensions. The results suggest that gender and gender-related individual differences within the sexes are strongly linked to the People–Things dimension of vocational interests.