Aus der Wikipedia:
Her writings are based on the „theory of difference“, the idea that the binary opposition between men and women is overly simplistic; although feminists have found it necessary to present the illusion of a solid, unified whole, the category of women itself is full of subdivisions.
Lorde identified issues of race, class, age and ageism, sex and sexuality and, later in her life, chronic illness and disability; the latter becoming more prominent in her later years as she lived with cancer. She wrote of all of these factors as fundamental to her experience of being a woman. She argued that, although differences in gender have received all the focus, it is essential that these other differences are also recognized and addressed. „Lorde,“ writes the critic Carmen Birkle, „puts her emphasis on the authenticity of experience. She wants her difference acknowledged but not judged; she does not want to be subsumed into the one general category of ‚woman.'“ This theory is today known as intersectionality.
Erstaunlich eigentlich, dass „Klasse“ in den Theorien vieler Feministinnen immer wieder vorkommt, im praktischen aber letztendlich kaum eine Rolle spielt. Da wird beispielsweise bei dem weißen Mann aus einer Unterschicht eher vorgehalten werden, dass er ja privilegiert ist und sich insofern nicht beschweren kann.
While acknowledging that the differences between women are wide and varied, most of Lorde’s works are concerned with two subsets that concerned her primarily – race and sexuality. In Ada Gay Griffin and Michelle Parkerson’s documentary A Litany for Survival: The Life and Work of Audre Lorde, Lorde says, „Let me tell you first about what it was like being a Black woman poet in the ’60s, from jump. It meant being invisible. It meant being really invisible. It meant being doubly invisible as a Black feminist woman and it meant being triply invisible as a Black lesbian and feminist“.
Auch männliche Poeten dürften sehr häufig eine geringe Sichtbarkeit haben. Heute hingegen dürfte Schwarz und Frau und dazu noch lesbisch eher viele Türen öffnen.
In her essay „The Erotic as Power“, written in 1978 and collected in Sister Outsider, Lorde theorizes the Erotic as a site of power for women only when they learn to release it from its suppression and embrace it. She proposes that the Erotic needs to be explored and experienced wholeheartedly, because it exists not only in reference to sexuality and the sexual, but also as a feeling of enjoyment, love, and thrill that is felt towards any task or experience that satisfies women in their lives, be it reading a book or loving one’s job. She dismisses „the false belief that only by the suppression of the erotic within our lives and consciousness can women be truly strong. But that strength is illusory, for it is fashioned within the context of male models of power.“ She explains how patriarchal society has misnamed it and used it against women, causing women to fear it. Women also fear it because the erotic is powerful and a deep feeling. Women must share each other’s power rather than use it without consent, which is abuse. They should do it as a method to connect everyone in their differences and similarities. Utilizing the erotic as power allows women to use their knowledge and power to face the issues of racism, patriarchy, and our anti-erotic society.
Feministische Theory ist schon häufig abgedreht und häufig auch aus so simplen Erklärungen zusammengebaut, dass ich immer wieder erstaunt bin. Mit dem Einsatz von Erotik als Macht können die Frauen ihr Wissen und ihre Macht einsetzen um den Rassimus, das Patriarchat und die Anti erotische Gesellschaft zu besiegen.
Lorde set out to confront issues of racism in feminist thought. She maintained that a great deal of the scholarship of white feminists served to augment the oppression of black women, a conviction that led to angry confrontation, most notably in a blunt open letter addressed to the fellow radical lesbian feminist Mary Daly, to which Lorde claimed she received no reply. Daly’s reply letter to Lorde, dated four months later, was found in 2003 in Lorde’s files after she died.
Mir fehlt ja immer noch ein tatsächliches Beispiel, welches belegt, dass eine Verbesserung für Frauen an sich nicht auch eine Verbesserung für schwarze Frauen ist. Insofern scheinen mir die Auseinandersetzungen da eher immer eher als ein Kampf um die größere Wichtigkeit bzw mehr Aufmerksamkeit unter Ignorierung des Umstandes, dass man als Frauen ein gleiches Ziel entwickeln könnte ohne das groß mit Rassismus zu vermischen.
This fervent disagreement with notable white feminists furthered Lorde’s persona as an outsider: „In the institutional milieu of black feminist and black lesbian feminist scholars … and within the context of conferences sponsored by white feminist academics, Lorde stood out as an angry, accusatory, isolated black feminist lesbian voice“.
Und heute ist sie eine er Heldinnen des intersectionalen Feminismus. Wie die Zeiten sich ändern.
The criticism was not one-sided: many white feminists were angered by Lorde’s brand of feminism. In her 1984 essay „The Master’s Tools Will Never Dismantle the Master’s House„, Lorde attacked what she believed was underlying racism within feminism, describing it as unrecognized dependence on the patriarchy. She argued that, by denying difference in the category of women, white feminists merely furthered old systems of oppression and that, in so doing, they were preventing any real, lasting change. Her argument aligned white feminists who did not recognize race as a feminist issue with white male slave-masters, describing both as „agents of oppression“.
Aus dem Text des Essays:
“… survival is not an academic skill. It is learning how to stand alone, unpopular and sometimes reviled, and how to make common cause with those others identified as outside the structures in order to define and seek a world in which we can all flourish. It is learning how to take our differences and make them strengths. For the master’s tools will never dismantle the master’s house. They may allow us temporarily to beat him at his own game, but they will never enable us to bring about genuine change. And this fact is only threatening to those women who still define the master’s house as their only source of support.“
Ist das der alte Gedanke aus dem lesbischen Feminismus, nachdem Frauen sich nicht auf Männer einlassen sollten, weil eben die Ehe/Beziehung mit einem Mann Teil der Unterdrückung ist? Was das allerdings dann wieder mit weißen Frauen zu tun hat verstehe ich nicht ganz.
Lorde’s comments on feminism
Lorde held that the key tenets of feminism were that all forms of oppression were interrelated; creating change required taking a public stand; differences should not be used to divide; revolution is a process; feelings are a form of self-knowledge that can inform and enrich activism; and acknowledging and experiencing pain helps women to transcend it.
In Lorde’s „Age, Race, Class, and Sex: Women Redefining Difference,“ she writes: „Certainly there are very real differences between us of race, age, and sex. But it is not those differences between us that are separating us. It is rather our refusal to recognize those differences, and to examine the distortions which result from our misnaming them and their effects upon human behavior and expectation.“ More specifically she states: „As white women ignore their built-in privilege of whiteness and define woman in terms of their own experience alone, then women of color become ‚other‘.“ Self-identified as „a forty-nine-year-old Black lesbian feminist socialist mother of two,“ Lorde is considered as „other, deviant, inferior, or just plain wrong“ in the eyes of the normative „white male heterosexual capitalist“ social hierarchy. „We speak not of human difference, but of human deviance,“ she writes. In this respect, her ideology coincides with womanism, which „allows Black women to affirm and celebrate their color and culture in a way that feminism does not.“
In „Age, Race, Class, and Sex: Women Redefining Difference“, Western European History conditions people to see human differences. Human differences are seen in „simplistic opposition“ and there is no difference recognized by the culture at large. There are three specific ways Western European culture responds to human difference. First, we begin by ignoring our differences. Next, is copying each other’s differences. And finally, we destroy each other’s differences that are perceived as „lesser“.
Lorde defines racism, sexism, ageism, heterosexism, elitism and classism altogether and explains that an „ism“ is an idea that what is being privileged is superior and has the right to govern anything else. Belief in the superiority of one aspect of the mythical norm. Lorde explains that a mythical norm is what all bodies should be. The mythical norm of US culture is white, thin, male, young, heterosexual, Christian, financially secure.
Da ist ja schon einiges vom heutigen Privilegienbegriff drin.
Influences on black feminism
Lorde’s work on black feminism continues to be examined by scholars today. Jennifer C. Nash examines how black feminists acknowledge their identities and find love for themselves through those differences. Nash cites Lorde, who writes: „I urge each one of us here to reach down into that deep place of knowledge inside herself and touch that terror and loathing of any difference that lives there. See whose face it wears. Then the personal as the political can begin to illuminate all our choices.„ Nash explains that Lorde is urging black feminists to embrace politics rather than fear it, which will lead to an improvement in society for them. Lorde adds, „Black women sharing close ties with each other, politically or emotionally, are not the enemies of Black men. Too frequently, however, some Black men attempt to rule by fear those Black women who are more ally than enemy.“
Der Wunsch, dass sich doch mehr Personen der bevorzugten Identitäten (hier: Frauen und Schwarz) ist verständlich, ebanso der Appell an diese, dass dann auch zu tun
Lorde’s 1979 essay „Sexism: An American Disease in Blackface“ is a sort of rallying cry to confront sexism in the black community in order to eradicate the violence within it. Lorde insists that the fight between black women and men must end to end racist politics.
Versöhnung zwischen den Geschlechtern und Kampf gegen das gemeinsame Übel Rassismus auf der einen Seite. Auf der anderen aber die Unfähigkeit zu erkennen, dass eine Einigung auch zwischen den Frauen besser wäre, statt ihnen „White Feminism“ vorzuwerfen.
Contributions to the third-wave feminist discourse
Around the 1960s, second-wave feminism became centered around discussions and debates about capitalism as a „biased, discriminatory, and unfair“ institution, especially within the context of the rise of globalization.
Third-wave feminism emerged in the 1990s after calls for „a more differentiated feminism“ by first-world women of color and women in developing nations, such as Audre Lorde, who maintained her critiques of first world feminism for tending to veer toward „third-world homogenization.“ This term was coined by radical dependency theorist, Andre Gunder Frank, to describe the inconsideration of the unique histories of developing countries (in the process of forming development agendas). Audre Lorde was critical of the first world feminist movement „for downplaying sexual, racial, and class differences“ and the unique power structures and cultural factors which vary by region, nation, community, etc.
Other feminist scholars of this period, like Chandra Talpade Mohanty, echoed Lorde’s sentiments. Collectively they called for a „feminist politics of location, which theorized that women were subject to particular assemblies of oppression, and therefore that all women emerged with particular rather than generic identities“. While they encouraged a global community of women, Audre Lorde, in particular, felt the cultural homogenization of third-world women could only lead to a disguised form of oppression with its own forms of „othering“ (Other (philosophy)) women in developing nations into figures of deviance and non-actors in theories of their own development.
Klingt etwas nach der These, dass ein Privilegierter eine Kultur nicht bewerten darf.
Afro-German feminist scholar and author Dr. Marion Kraft interviewed Audre Lorde in 1986 to discuss a number of her literary works and poems. In this interview, Audre Lorde articulated hope for the next wave of feminist scholarship and discourse. When asked by Kraft, „Do you see any development of the awareness about the importance of differences within the white feminist movement?“ Lorde replied with both critiques and hope:
„Well, the feminist movement, the white feminist movement, has been notoriously slow to recognize that racism is a feminist concern, not one that is altruistic, but one that is part and parcel of feminist consciousness… I think, in fact, though, that things are slowly changing and that there are white women now who recognize that in the interest of genuine coalition, they must see that we are not the same. Black feminism is not white feminism in Blackface. It is an intricate movement coming out of the lives, aspirations, and realities of Black women. We share some things with white women, and there are other things we do not share. We must be able to come together around those things we share.
Es wird in diesen ganzen Passagen wirklich nie konkret. Wenn jemand eine Stelle kennt, in der sie mal genau anführt, was die Unterschiede sind, dann würe ich interessiert.
Miriam Kraft summarized Lorde’s position when reflecting on the interview; „Yes, we have different historical, social, and cultural backgrounds, different sexual orientations; different aspirations and visions; different skin colors and ages. But we share common experiences and a common goal. Our experiences are rooted in the oppressive forces of racism in various societies, and our goal is our mutual concern to work toward ‚a future which has not yet been‘ in Audre’s words.
Eine Zukunft, die noch nicht war. Ich vermute mal Audre Lorde hat auch nur eine vage Vorstellung von dieser Zukunft, die relativ viel Gemeinsamkeiten mit dem Paradies hat. Eben eine Welt, in der plötzlich kein Rassismus mehr ist.