Soziale Kosten einer schlechten Bindung zu Müttern bzw Vätern

Eine interessant Studie zu der Entwicklung von Kindern in Abhängigkeit zur Bindung an ihre Eltern:

Abstract
Background

Knowing that your parent or caregiver will be there for you in times of emotional need and distress is a core aspect of the human experience of feeling loved and being securely attached. In contrast, an insecure attachment pattern is found in many antisocial youth and is related to less sensitive caregiving. Such youth are often distrustful of adults and authority figures, and are at high risk of poor outcomes. As they become adults, they require extensive health, social and economic support, costing society ten times more than their well-adjusted peers. However, it is not known whether insecure attachment itself is associated with higher costs in at-risk youth, independently of potential confounders, nor whether cost differences are already beginning to emerge early in adolescence.

Methods
Sample: A total of 174 young people followed up aged 9–17 years (mean 12.1, SD 1.8): 85 recruited with moderate antisocial behaviour (80th percentile) from a school screen aged 4–6 years; 89 clinically referred with very high antisocial behaviour (98th percentile) aged 3–7 years. Measures: Costs by detailed health economic and service-use interview; attachment security to mother and father from interview; diagnostic interviews for oppositional and conduct problems; self-reported delinquent behaviour.
Results
Costs were greater for youth insecurely attached to their mothers (secure £6,743, insecure £10,199, p = .001) and more so to fathers (secure £1,353, insecure £13,978, p < .001). These differences remained significant (mother p = .019, father p < .001) after adjusting for confounders, notably family income and education, intelligence and antisocial behaviour severity.

Conclusions
Attachment insecurity is a significant predictor of public cost in at-risk youth, even after accounting for covariates. Since adolescent attachment security is influenced by caregiving quality earlier in childhood, these findings add support to the public health case for early parenting interventions to improve child outcomes and reduce the financial burden on society.

Quelle: The cost of love: financial consequences of insecure attachment in antisocial youth (Alternativlink)

Also kurz gefasst:

Kinder, die eine schlechte Bindung zu ihrer Mutter hatten, haben höhere Kosten für die Allgemeinheit verursacht und das Problem besteht noch viel stärker, wenn sie keine gute Bindung zu ihrem Vater haben.

Allerdings wurden hier auch Kinder getestet, die außerhalb der Norm liegen, so dass sich die Zahlen nicht ohne weiteres übertragen lassen.

Table 3 shows costs according to attachment security to mother and father. Children securely attached to their mother cost £6,743, whereas those insecurely attached cost £10,119 (p=0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). Differences were more striking for fathers, securely attached youths cost £1,353 whereas insecurely attached youths cost £13,978, an over tenfold difference. The greatest part of the cost came from those youths who had to be placed out of home due to their risky behaviour, next came extra costs incurred by schools, followed by family-borne costs (e.g. repairs, productivity loss), and additional health and social care services for the family. Whilst not necessarily large at this age, the differences between insecurely and securely attached youth were double or more across nearly all domains.

Da ich ja nun einmal ein Biologist bin noch die folgende Anmerkung:

Bei dem Studiendesign gibt es keine „Kontrollgruppe“, die auf die Genetik selektiert. Asoziale Väter könnten eben auch aufgrund der Verebung entsprechender Eigenschaften eher asoziale Kinder, haben gerade in dem Bereich der besonders auffälligen Kinder.

Und wenn die Kinder keine Bindung aufnehmen konnten, weil der Vater eben gerade weil er eher asozial war, nicht bei der Mutter geblieben ist und sich auch nicht um sein Kind gekümmert hat, gleichzeitig aber von Temprament, sozialen Fähigkeiten etc evtl ihrem Vater ähneln, dann würde dies zu dem hier vorgefundenen Bild beitragen bzw gerade in der Kombination könnte es für sie schwerer sein eine ´sichere Bindung zum Vater aufzubauen.