Nationale Einstellungsexperimente zeigen eine 2:1-Präferenz der Fakultäten für Frauen in den STEM-Bereichen

Eine interessante Studie zu den Chancen von Frauen in der Wissenschaft:

Significance

The underrepresentation of women in academic science is typically attributed, both in scientific literature and in the media, to sexist hiring. Here we report five hiring experiments in which faculty evaluated hypothetical female and male applicants, using systematically varied profiles disguising identical scholarship, for assistant professorships in biology, engineering, economics, and psychology. Contrary to prevailing assumptions, men and women faculty members from all four fields preferred female applicants 2:1 over identically qualified males with matching lifestyles (single, married, divorced), with the exception of male economists, who showed no gender preference. Comparing different lifestyles revealed that women preferred divorced mothers to married fathers and that men preferred mothers who took parental leaves to mothers who did not. Our findings, supported by real-world academic hiring data, suggest advantages for women launching academic science careers.

Abstract

National randomized experiments and validation studies were conducted on 873 tenure-track faculty (439 male, 434 female) from biology, engineering, economics, and psychology at 371 universities/colleges from 50 US states and the District of Columbia. In the main experiment, 363 faculty members evaluated narrative summaries describing hypothetical female and male applicants for tenure-track assistant professorships who shared the same lifestyle (e.g., single without children, married with children). Applicants‘ profiles were systematically varied to disguise identically rated scholarship; profiles were counterbalanced by gender across faculty to enable between-faculty comparisons of hiring preferences for identically qualified women versus men. Results revealed a 2:1 preference for women by faculty of both genders across both math-intensive and non–math-intensive fields, with the single exception of male economists, who showed no gender preference. Results were replicated using weighted analyses to control for national sample characteristics. In follow-up experiments, 144 faculty evaluated competing applicants with differing lifestyles (e.g., divorced mother vs. married father), and 204 faculty compared same-gender candidates with children, but differing in whether they took 1-y-parental leaves in graduate school. Women preferred divorced mothers to married fathers; men preferred mothers who took leaves to mothers who did not. In two validation studies, 35 engineering faculty provided rankings using full curricula vitae instead of narratives, and 127 faculty rated one applicant rather than choosing from a mixed-gender group; the same preference for women was shown by faculty of both genders. These results suggest it is a propitious time for women launching careers in academic science. Messages to the contrary may discourage women from applying for STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) tenure-track assistant professorships.

Also deutliche Vorteile für Frauen, aber dennoch eine geringer Vertretung. Könnte natürlich daran liegen, dass alle nach Möglichkeit den geringeren Anteil abbauen wollen, um dann in dieser Statistik besser dazustehen.

Eine Grafik dazu

<a class="highwire-fragment fragment-images colorbox-load highwireFiguresMarkupProcessor-processed cboxElement" style="-webkit-font-smoothing:antialiased;box-sizing:border-box;background-color:transparent;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;outline:0 !important;color:#005a96;display:block;border:0;box-shadow:rgba(0,0,0,0.15) 0 2px 10px 0;" title="Hirability of identically qualified candidates with matching lifestyles shown by field: percentage of faculty members ranking the applicant number one. Faculty members exhibit approximately a 2:1 preference for hiring women assistant professors over identically qualified men. Faculty members of both genders in all four fields expressed a strong hiring preference for female over male applicants with identical qualifications and lifestyles, compared across faculty in six counterbalanced experimental conditions (n = 339: 171 women and 168 men; χ2 = 40.38; P Fig. 1.

Fig. 1.

Hirability of identically qualified candidates with matching lifestyles shown by field: percentage of faculty members ranking the applicant number one. Faculty members exhibit approximately a 2:1 preference for hiring women assistant professors over identically qualified men. Faculty members of both genders in all four fields expressed a strong hiring preference for female over male applicants with identical qualifications and lifestyles, compared across faculty in six counterbalanced experimental conditions (n = 339: 171 women and 168 men; χ2 = 40.38; P < 0.0001, excluding tied ranks and choice of foil), with the exception of male economists, who ranked both genders equivalently. Engineering data include validation sample of 35 engineering faculty.

Also bei den meisten Bereichen eine große Übereinstimmung unabhängig von dem Geschlecht der Aussuchenden. Nur die Ökonomen unterscheiden sich, da bevorzugen die Männer Männer und die Frauen Frauen.

Auch der „Lebensstil“ wurde untersucht:

Fig. 2.

Fig. 2.

Percentage of female applicants chosen over identically qualified men with matching lifestyles, shown by lifestyle. Percentage of faculty members who preferred to hire the female applicant over the identically qualified male applicant with the same lifestyle, shown for six different lifestyles [n = 339; all preferences for women over men are significant with the exception of that for mothers with spouses running home-based businesses, with significance levels ranging from z = 2.23 (P = 0.025) to z = 3.18 (P = 0.0013)].

Aus der Studie:

An overall comparison of applicants within each of the six lifestyles showed the same strong preference for women with no effect of specific lifestyle (i.e., being married or single or being with or without daycare-age children did not change the highly significant 2:1 female advantage; Fig. 2; all preferences for women were significant within each lifestyle with the exception of mothers with spouses running home-based businesses). The most common lifestyle for assistant professor applicants is single without children; here women were strongly and equivalently preferred by both male and female faculty members: 66.7% and 75.9%, respectively (n = 62; χ2 = 10.90; P = 0.001; there was no difference in men’s and women’s preference for women: χ2 = 0.63; P = 0.43).

Interessant, dass Frauen schlechter abschnitten, wenn ihr Partner ein Buisness von Zuhause aus geführt hat aber nicht (bzw nicht so stark), wenn er auswärts gearbeitet hat. Wäre natürlich interessant wie da das Alter der Kinder mit hineinspielt.