Die umfangreiche Studie von Buss zu den Geschlechterunterschieden bei der Partnerwahl ist erneut durchgeführt worden und die damaligen Ergebnisse haben sich bestätigt
Considerable research has examined human mate preferences across cultures, finding universal sex differences in preferences for attractiveness and resources as well as sources of systematic cultural variation. Two competing perspectives—an evolutionary psychological perspective and a biosocial role perspective—offer alternative explanations for these findings. However, the original data on which each perspective relies are decades old, and the literature is fraught with conflicting methods, analyses, results, and conclusions. Using a new 45-country sample (N = 14,399), we attempted to replicate classic studies and test both the evolutionary and biosocial role perspectives. Support for universal sex differences in preferences remains robust: Men, more than women, prefer attractive, young mates, and women, more than men, prefer older mates with financial prospects. Cross-culturally, both sexes have mates closer to their own ages as gender equality increases. Beyond age of partner, neither pathogen prevalence nor gender equality robustly predicted sex differences or preferences across countries.
- Männer bevorzugen nach wie vor attraktive, junge Partner
- Frauen bevorzugen ältere Partner mit guten finanziellen Aussichten
- Die Gleichberechtigung in einem Land verändert diese Partnerwahlkriterien nicht
Aus der Studie:
Hier sieht man, dass Männer körperliche Schönheit wichtiger finden als Frauen, die dafür die finanzielle Stellung des Partners höher bewerten. Der größte Unterschied ist beim Alter. Aber Frauen finden beim Partner auch Intelligenz, Gesundheit und „Nettigkeit“ wichtiger.
Aus der Studie:
Across cultures, women reported a higher preference for an ideal mate with good financial prospects than men, on average, b = −0.30, SE = 0.03, p < .001 (Fig. 1).
Mate preferences were standardized across countries prior to analysis, so this and all b values can be interpreted as equivalent to Cohen’s ds. The average for women was 5.48, 95% CI = [5.46, 5.51], and the average for men was 5.11, 95% CI = [5.08, 5.14]. The smallest sex difference was in Spain, b = −0.12, and the largest sex difference was in China, b = −0.56. Furthermore,
men reported a higher preference for a physically attractive ideal mate than women, on average, b = 0.27, SE = 0.03, p < .001. The average for women was 5.56, 95% CI = [5.53, 5.58], and the average for men was 5.85,
95% CI = [5.83, 5.88]. The sex difference (b) ranged from −0.07 in China to 0.50 in Brazil. Furthermore, we found small but still-significant sex differences in reported ideal preference for kindness, intelligence, and health. However, both men and women reported higher preferences for these traits in an ideal partner than for good financial prospects or for physical attractiveness. Women reported preferences for kinder ideal mates than men, on average, b = −0.12, SE = 0.02, p < .001. The average for women was 6.23, 95% CI = [6.21, 6.26], and the average for men was 6.12,
95% CI = [6.10, 6.15]. The sex difference (b) ranged from −0.23 in the United States to 0.06 in Uganda. Women also reported preferences for greater intelligence in ideal mates, on average, b = −0.12, SE = 0.02, p < .001. The
average for women was 6.03, 95% CI = [6.01, 6.05], and the average for men was 5.92, 95% CI = [5.89, 5.94]. The sex difference (b) ranged from −0.35 in China to 0.04 in Algeria. Finally, women reported preferences for healthier
ideal mates than men, on average, b = −0.09, SE = 0.03, p = .001. The average for women was 6.10, 95% CI = [6.08, 6.12], and the average for men was 6.00, 95% CI = [5.98, 6.03]. The sex difference (b) ranged from −0.29 in Belgium to 0.10 in Hungary. Overall, we replicated the sex differences in preferences for resources and attractiveness found in Buss (1989). Buss computed country-level t tests and found that women rated “good financial prospects” as more important in a potential mate than men did, while men rated “good looks” as more important than women did across cultures. Here, using multilevel models, we found that these sex differences in mate preferences remain robust around the world. Furthermore, consistent with Buss (1989), our results showed that health, kindness, and intelligence were highly valued by both men and women; however, we found that women, on average, tend to prefer more of each of these characteristics than do men.
Die Unterschiede sind nicht so groß, aber es sind auch „nur“ Befragungen, ich vermute, dass dies bei tatsächlichen Test eher noch deutlicher werden würde.
Hier noch eine weitere Grafik zum Alter:
Bei Männern nimmt der Altersunterschied mit dem Alter zu.
Und hier noch eine zu den Unterschieden in den verschiedenen Ländern: