Studie: Geschlechterunterschiede in der Persönlichkeit korrelieren mit ökologischen Stress in der jeweiligen Gesellschaft

Tim Kaiser, der schon Autor der gestrigen Studie war, hat eine weitere interessante Studie veröffentlicht:

Abstract
Sex differences in personality were found to be larger in more developed and more genderequal societies. However, the studies that report this effect either have methodological shortcomings or do not take into account possible underlying effects of ecological variables.
Here, a large, multinational (N = 867,782) dataset of personality profiles was used to examine sex differences in Big Five facet scores for 50 countries. Gender differences were related to estimates of ecological stress as well as socio-cultural variables. Using a regularized partial-correlation approach, the unique associations of those correlates with sex
differences were isolated.
Sex differences were large (median Mahalanobis’ D = 1.97) and varied substantially across countries (range 1.49 to 2.48). Global sex differences are larger in more developed countries with higher food availability, less pathogen prevalence, higher gender equality and an individualistic culture. However, after controlling for confounds, only historic pathogen prevalence, food availability and cultural individualism remained. Sex differences in personality are uniquely correlated to ecological stress. Previously reported correlations between greater sex differences and outcomes of gender equality could be due to confounding by influences of ecological stress.

Quelle: Nature and evoked culture: sex differences in personality are uniquely correlated with ecological stress.

Hier etwas zu den Daten: Eine Übersicht über die Ausprägung der Geschlechterunterschiede:

Geschlechterunterschiede weltweit

Wie man sieht liegt Deutschland eher im Mittelfeld, Russland weißt einen der größten Geschlechterunterschiede aus, Pakistan den kleinsten. Es wäre interessant noch zu sehen, in welche Richtung die Unterschiede kleiner oder größer geworden sind. Interessant natürlich auch, dass Länder wie Norwegen und Dänemark oder Schweden oder die Niederlande keineswegs sehr weit unten stehen, sie bewegen sich in der Mitte bzw im oberen Mittelfeld

Vermutlich sind die Russen extrem männlich und die Russinnen extrem weiblich in der Persönlichkeit.

Sind aber die pakistanischen Männer eher weiblicher oder die pakistanischen Frauen eher männlicher oder bewegen sich beide auf die Mitte zu? Welche Eigenschaften haben sich angeglichen?

Weiter aus der Studie:

Geschlechterunterschiede in der Persönlichkeit und Variablen

Und die Besprechung dazu aus der Studie:

Sex differences in personality were larger in more individualistic countries with higher food availability and lower pathogen prevalence. Effect sizes of the unregularized correlations were medium to large. After regularization, the unique correlations still represent medium to slightly above-average effects when following empirically derived guidelines for effect size interpretation in individual differences research (Gignac & Szodorai, 2016). Gender equality and cultural individualism were positively correlated with larger sex differences, thus replicating existing findings. However, the specific correlation between gender equality and sex differences was reduced to zero after regularization. This indicates that previously reported findings reporting this effect could be attributed to confounding variables and may be better explained by ecological influences. In this study, sex differences in personality showed the strongest unique associations with ecological variables, namely historic pathogen prevalence and historic food consumption. A possible explanation for this   could be that ecological influences on the development of human cultures unfold over one or more generations. For example, changes in pathogen prevalence precede shifts in gender equality by up to three decades (Varnum & Grossmann, 2017). Still, longitudinal studies are needed to validate this speculation.

Demnach wäre also die Verfügbarkeit von Essen und das Nichtvorhandensein von Krankheitserregern  ein guter Indikator für größere Geschlechterunterschiede. Was ja durchaus mit der Theorie, dass man unter schwereren Bedingungen eher praktisch handelt, in guten aber seine Geschlechterunterschiede ausleben kann.

Aus einer Besprechung zu dieser Studie:

This basic pattern of findings was replicated in another recent large-scale survey of narrow personality traits conducted on nearly a million people across 50 countries. Using different personality tests, and averaging across all countries, Tim Kaiser found a D = 2.16, which is very similar to the effect size found in the other study on English-speaking countries. While there was cross-cultural variation in the effect, there was a general trend for more developed, individualistic countries with higher food availability, less pathogen prevalence, and higher gender equality to show the largest sex differences in global personality [6].

In particular, Scandinavian countries consistently showed larger-than-average sex differences in global personality, together with the US, Canada, Australia, the UK, and other Northern and Eastern European Countries. The countries with the smallest sex differences in global personality included several Southeast Asian countries. To be sure, there wasn’t a perfect correlation between more developed, gender-egalitarian countries and sex differences (e.g., Russia displayed the largest sex difference with D = 2.48). But even Pakistan– the country with the smallest sex differences in global personality in the world according to this study– had a D = 1.49. This means that even when you look around the world for the country with the smallest sex difference in global personality, the classification accuracy of that country is still 77%!

Es sind also selbst in den Ländern mit den niedrigsten Geschlechterunterschieden noch riesige Geschlechterunterschiede vorhanden.

Das asiatische Länder, in denen Männer einen niedrigeren Testosteronspiegel haben und Frauen relativ hohes pränatales Testosteron hingegen niedrigere Unterschiede zeigen ist interessant.

Mich würde auch interessieren, wie Russland da reinpasst: Krankheitserreger spielen vielleicht angesichts der Kälte eine geringere Rolle, aber Russland hat ja eigentlich genug Armut hinter sich.