Hängt die Anzahl Homosexueller und Bisexueller in einer Gesellschaft von Faktoren wie ökonomische Entwicklung, Gleichberechtigung oder Individualismus in dieser Gesellschaft ab?

Eine interessante Studie hat untersucht, ob der Stand einer Gesellschaft in den Bereichen Gleichberechtigung, ökonomischer Entwicklung oder Individualismus eine Voraussage erlaubt, wie häufig dort von der Norm abweichende sexuelle Orientierungen auftreten:

The prevalence of women’s and men’s heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality was assessed in 28 nations using data from 191,088 participants from a 2005 BBC Internet survey. Sexual orientation was measured in terms of both self-reported sexual identity and self-reported degree of same-sex attraction. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that nations’ degrees of gender equality, economic development, and individualism were not significantly associated with men’s or women’s sexual orientation rates across nations. These models controlled for individual-level covariates including age and education level, and nation-level covariates including religion and national sex ratios. Robustness checks included inspecting the confidence intervals for meaningful associations, and further analyses using complete-cases and summary scores of the national indices. These analyses produced the same non-significant results. The relatively stable rates of heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality observed across nations for both women and men suggest that non-social factors likely may underlie much variation in human sexual orientation. These results do not support frequently offered hypotheses that sexual orientation differences are related to gendered social norms across societies.

Quelle: Prevalence of Sexual Orientation Across 28 Nations and Its Association with Gender Equality, Economic Development, and Individualism

Eine Überprüfung diverser Faktoren wie dem ökonomischen Faktor, den Grad des Individualismus und der Gleichberechtigung hat also nicht dazu geführt, dass sich die Häufigkeit von Bisexualität oder Homosexualität verändert hat. Dabei wäre das nach hängigen soziologischen Modellen ja durchaus zu erwarten: Um so ökonomisch unabhängiger die Leute sind, um so eher ein Individualismus gefördert wird, um so eher dort „Gender Equality“ gefördert wird, um so eher, müsste man eigentlich meinen, könnten sich die Leute auch ausleben und von der Norm lösen.

Aber den Ergebnissen nach ist dies nicht der Fall, auch nicht wenn man weitere Faktoren wie Religösität, Alter etc als weitere Faktoren untersucht.

Aus der Studie:

Across nations, mean rates of male and female heterosexual identity (90.0% and 90.7%) did not differ, independent t(54) = − .72. However, a higher percent of men (4.9%) than women (2.1%) reported a homosexual identity, t(54) = 5.22, p < .001, whereas a lower percent of men (5.1%) than women (7.2%) reported a bisexual identity, t(54) = − 3.25, p = .002.

Heterosexualität

  • Männer:   90%
  • Frauen:  90,7%

Homosexualität:

  • Männer:   4,9%
  • Frauen:  2,1%

Bisexualität:

  • Männer:   5,1%
  • Frauen:  7,2%

Weiter aus der Studie:

There was no consistent evidence, across nations, for sex differences in the variability of sexual orientation prevalence rates. Levene’s test for the equality of variances showed no significant differences in the variance of prevalence rates for men’s and women’s self-reported heterosexual or bisexual identities across nations. However, prevalence rates of men’s homosexual identity were more variable, across nations, than prevalence rates of women’s lesbian identity, p = .009. When sexual orientation was assessed in terms of participants’ same-sex attraction, women were more variable than men, across nations, in their prevalence of being moderately attracted to the same sex, p < .004. However, women and men did not differ significantly in the variability of their prevalence of not being attracted to the same sex and being predominantly attracted to the same sex (all ps > .05).

Finally, the relatively small cross-nation SDs reported in Table 4—particularly for prevalence rates for homosexual identities and predominant same-sex attractions—suggest substantial consistency across nations. Thus, despite the existence of variations across nations, sexual orientation rates were nonetheless relatively stable across nations.

Und:

The central question addressed by the current research was: Are national factors such as gender equality, economic development, and individualism-collectivism related to the national prevalence of various sexual orientations, across 28 nations? Our analyses also tested the frequently offered hypothesis that sexual orientation rates may be associated with gender norms and social roles (Bearman & Bruckner, 2002; Greenberg, 1988; Terry, 1999). The use of a large international dataset allowed us to test whether countries that differed in gender egalitarianism and rigidity of gender roles (as indexed by national indicators of gender equality and gender empowerment) also differed in the prevalence of various sexual orientations. We found no compelling evidence that this was the case.

Was ja eigentlich ein weiterer Sargnagel in den diesbezüglichen feministischen Theorien ist, die von einer kulturellen Prägung der Heterosexualität ausgehen, etwa zur Unterwerfung der Frau etc.

vgl.

Und noch ein paar zur Biologie der Homosexualität:

Hier noch mal kurz etwas zu biologischen Theorien zur Homosexualität: