Gender Pay Gap bei Busfahrern und Zugführern

Zusätzlich zu der Studie bei Uber wurde ein weiterer Bereich untersucht, in dem eigentlich keine Gehaltsunterschiede zu erwarten sind und dennoch wurde einer gefunden: Bus- und Zugfahrer.

Even in a unionized environment where work tasks are similar, hourly wages are identical, and tenure dictates promotions, female workers earn $0.89 on the male-worker dollar (weekly earnings). We use confidential administrative data on bus and train operators from the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) to show that the weekly earnings gap can be explained by the workplace choices that women and men make. Women value time away from work and flexibility more than men, taking more unpaid time off using the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and working fewer overtime hours than men. When overtime hours are scheduled three months in advance, men and women work a similar number of hours; but when those hours are offered at the last minute, men work nearly twice as many. When selecting work schedules, women try to avoid weekend, holiday, and split shifts more than men. To avoid unfavorable work times, women prioritize their schedules over route safety and select routes with a higher probability of accidents. Women are less likely than men to game the scheduling system by trading off work hours at regular wages for overtime hours at premium wages. These results suggest that some policies that increase workplace flexibility, like shift swapping and expanded cover lists, can reduce the gender earnings gap and disproportionately increase the well-being of female workers.

Quelle: Why Do Women Earn Less Than Men? Evidence from Bus and Train Operators∗

Also auch in dieser sehr stark durch eine Gewerkschaft kontrollierten Bereich zeigen sich erneut Gehaltsunterschiede.

Die dort abgeleiteten Thesen:

  1. Women value time away from work more than men
  2. Women take more overtime when it is scheduled in advance than when it is unscheduled or offered at the last-minute
  3. Women with dependents value time away from work and flexibility more than men with dependents
  4. Women try to avoid work more than men during times when values of time outside the workplace are especially high
  5. Women value preferable schedules over other workplace amenities
  6. When faced with having to work an unfavorable schedule, women are more likely than men to choose unpaid leave instead

Das passt eigentlich ganz gut in das, was sich auch schon in anderen Bereichen zeigt: Männer setzen eine andere Work-Life-Balance und entscheiden sich eher für einen höheren Verdienst als die Frauen.

Exemplarisch herausgegriffen: Eine Übersicht zu Überstunden:

 

Advertisements