Geschlechterunterschiede in der Persönlichkeit

Eine Studie untersucht anhand eines großen Datensatzes (n=320,128) Unterschiede in der Persönlichkeit zwischen den Geschlechtern:


We studied the sex gap in 30 facet traits (IPIP-NEO) in a large US sample (N = 320,128).

Women scored higher (d > 0.50) in Anxiety, Vulnerability, Openness to Emotions, Altruism, and Sympathy.

Men only scored higher (d > 0.20) in Excitement-seeking and Openness to Intellect.

The present study reports on the scope and size of sex differences in 30 personality facet traits, using one of the largest US samples to date (N = 320,128). The study was one of the first to utilize the open access version of the Five-Factor Model of personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the large public. Overall, across age-groups 19–69 years old, women scored notably higher than men in Agreeableness (d = 0.58) and Neuroticism (d = 0.40). Specifically, women scored d > 0.50 in facet traits Anxiety, Vulnerability, Openness to Emotions, Altruism, and Sympathy, while men only scored slightly higher (d > 0.20) than women in facet traits Excitement-seeking and Openness to Intellect. Sex gaps in the five trait domains were fairly constant across all age-groups, with the exception for age-group 19–29 years old. The discussion centers on how to interpret effects sizes in sex differences in personality traits, and tentative consequences.

Quelle: Sex differences in 30 facets of the five factor model of personality in the large public (N = 320,128) (abstract/ Volltext Sci-hub)

Die einzelnen Werte werden hier dargestellt:


Unterschiede Persönlichkeit Mann Frau

Unterschiede Persönlichkeit Mann Frau

Wie man hier sieht sind viele der Eigenschaften konstant unterschiedlich über alle Alterstufen, einige verändern sich auch stark mit dem Alter, die Geschlechter kommen zumindest etwas zusammen.

Die Werte im Einzelnen:

Hier sieht man, dass von leichten bis mittleren Unterschieden alles dabei ist. Hohe werte sind zB erreicht bei „Verletzbarkeit“ „Ängstlichkeit“ „Moralität“ „Altruismus“ „Ehrlichkeit“ und „Sympathie“

Aus der Besprechung:

The current study showed that almost 50% of the specific FFM personality trait facets showed above small effects, and almost 25% above medium effects in sex differences. The most notable difference was seen in the trait domains Neuroticism and Agreeableness. Some specific facets, such as Anxiety (N1) and Sympathy (A6), reported mean effects of over d ~ 0.50 (Table 1). Interestingly, Neuroticism was, unlike Agreeableness, not uniformly different between sexes across the age-spans, with the largest gap found in the late teens, narrowing and stabilizing first at around 45 years of age.

According to a broad evolutionary perspective, this trend seems to coincide with female sexual fertility. In this phase of life, females tend to be more vulnerable than males, in regard to the heightened male sexual aggression (Archer, 2004), while simultaneously investing in pregnancy and caring for infants (Wood & Eagly, 2002). Having women more disposed to anxiety (and empathy), while men are more disposed to assertiveness, may have been an optimal strategy for the propagation of the human species. Certainly, part of the sex gap could also be explained by cultural factors, such as young men not admitting to questionnaire-items assessing neuroticism. However, this explanation may not be supported by other-reports and behavioral observation (Vianello et al., 2013).
Differences in the other trait domains in the FFM were smaller (Openness, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness), and tended to be driven by single specific facets, such as Openness to Emotions (d = 0.64), Conscientiousness Achievement (d = 0.25), and Extraversion Activity (d = 0.24). Overall, these sex differences in the present US sample (Table 1) aligned well with the now almost 20-year old landmark findings in the original FFM NEO-PI-R model (Costa Jr et al., 2001). Comparing the sex gap in facet traits in US adults in our present study with Costa Jr et al. (2001) showed no reversed effects, while a few (e.g., Friendliness, Gregariousness, Trust, and Self-efficacy) had dropped to trivial levels. +

However, even more traits showed increased sex gaps, which may be implicated by the thesis that the more progressive a society becomes, the greater the sex differences in personality (Schmitt et al., 2008; Stoet & Geary, 2018).

Wie dort richtig angeführt sagt die Studie erst einmal nur aus, dass es Unterschiede gibt, nicht worauf sie beruhen. Auch interessant ist, dass man wohl feststellt, dass die Unterschiede eher größer werden.

vgl auch: