Koalitionsbildung und deren Schwerpunkt bei Männchen und Weibchen

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Die These der größeren männlichen Variabilität

Ein Text behandelt die Theorie, dass Männer eine größere Variabilität haben und daher beispielsweise in einigen Bereichen sowohl bei den sehr schlechten als auch den sehr guten eher anzutreffen sind:

Es wäre die Unterscheidung zwischen diesem Bild aus dem Googlemanifesto:

Damore Populationen Normalverteilungen

Damore Populationen Normalverteilungen

und diesem Bild:

variabilität Männer Frauen

variabilität Männer Frauen

Da würde man sehen, dass die eine Kurve etwas „breiter“ ist, dafür aber „flacher“ verläuft.

Entsprechendes wird zB auch bei der Intelligenz diskutiert.

In dem Artikel wird einiges an Studien dazu zitiert, die das nahelegen:

Das bringt sie zu folgendem Ergebnis:

  1. On average, male variability is greater than female variability on a variety of measures of cognitive ability, personality traits, and interests.  This means men are more likely to be found at both the low and high end of these distributions (see Halpern et al., 2007; Machin & Pekkarinen, 2008 and, especially, the supplementary materials; for an ungated summary click here).  This finding is consistent across decades.
  2. The gender difference in variability has reduced substantially over time within the United States and is variable across cultures. It is clearly responsive to social and cultural factors (see Hyde & Mertz, 2009; Wai et al., 2010); Educational programs can be effective.  It is also clear that there are cultural/societal influences, as the male:female variability ratios can vary considerably across cultures (e.g., Machin & Pekkarinen, 2008).
  3. While the gender difference in the male:female ratio for the upper tail of the distribution of math test scores (SAT, ACT) narrowed considerably in the United States in the 1980s, it appears to have remained steady since the early 1990s.  This can be seen visually in Figure 1 from Wai et al. (2010):
    • Therefore at the top end of any distribution of test scores where men have higher variability, we’d expect men to make up more than 50% of the upper end of the tail.  Thus, any company drawing from the top 5% is likely to find a pool that contains more males. As one goes further out into the tail (i.e. becomes even more selective) the gender tilt becomes larger.
  4. Further compounding the gender tilt: the women in this elite group generally have much better verbal skills than the men in that elite group (see Reilly, 2012).  This means that these women may be better employees than men who match them on quantitative skills, but because they have such superior verbal skills they have more choices available to them when selecting a profession.