Eine interessante Studie hat „Selfies“ mit Werbung verglichen. Anscheinend ist dabei das Leben noch Stereotyper als die Werbung:
Selfies (self-portrait photographs often taken with a camera phone) are popularly used for self-presentation in social media like Facebook and Instagram. These modern user-generated self-portraits have the potential to draw a more versatile picture of the genders instead of reproducing traditional gender stereotypes often presented in mainstream media and advertising. To investigate the degree of gender stereotyping in selfies, a random sample of 500 selfies uploaded on Instagram (50% representing females, 50% males) was drawn and subjected to quantitative content analysis. The degree of gender stereotyping in the selfies was measured using Goffman’s (1979) and Kang’s (1997) gender display categories (e.g. feminine touch, lying posture, withdrawing gaze, sparse clothing) plus three social media-related categories (kissing pout, muscle presentation, faceless portrayal). Additionally, gender stereotyping in selfies was directly compared to the degree of gender stereotyping in magazine adverts measured in the same way (Döring & Pöschl, 2006). Results reveal that male and female Instagram users‘ selfies not only reflect traditional gender stereotypes, but are even more stereotypical than magazine adverts.
Die Ergebnisse noch mal als Tabellen:
Hier sind gerade die Unterschiede interessant und es scheint als würden die Leute bei dem Versuch sich selbst gut darzustellen, Stereotype lieben.
Ein naheliegender Gedanke wäre, dass die Stereotype etwas bedienen, was die Leute eben gut darstehen lässt. Bei Frauen scheint das Liegen, aus der Balance sein, der Blick weg vom Betrachter, und Kontrollverlust zu erfüllen. Leichte Bekleidung kommt in der Werbung aber häufiger vor, allerdings bei Männern und Frauen.
Aus einer Besprechung einer Besprechung:
„Selfies turned out to be even more stereotypical than the adverts in four of six categories,“ researchers Nicola Döring, Anne Reif, and Sandra Poeschl write in the journal Computers in Human Behavior. „User-generated content obviously does not automatically lead to a reduction in stereotypical gender portrayal.“
The researchers examined a random sample of 250 selfies featuring women, and another 250 starring men, taken from the popular photo-sharing platform Instagram. „The sample only contained selfies that were publicly available online,“ they note.
The images were compared with those used in 183 print ads for mobile communication systems published in popular German magazines from 2001 to 2003.
The researchers found women’s selfies were more likely than the ads to reflect gender stereotypes in four ways: They were more likely to feature a „feminine touch“ (using one’s fingers or hands to cradle or caress an object); a „withdrawing gaze“ (looking away from the camera, or closing one’s eyes); „imbalance“ (tilting one’s body one way or another, rather than standing straight); and „loss of control“ (implied by, among other things, exaggerated facial expressions).
„The biggest differences between selfies and magazine adverts appeared for the categories ‚imbalance‘ (85.6 percent of females in selfies vs. 50 percent of women in ads were not standing stable) and ‚loss of control‘ (79.5 percent of females in selfies vs. 50 percent of females in ads showed strong emotionality),“ the research team writes. „Only in two of the six categories the magazine adverts revealed more gender stereotyping: 77.8 percent of the adverts depicted women in a lying position, as opposed to 66.7 percent of the selfies, and in 79.5 percent of the magazine adverts, women were sparsely clothed, as opposed to 59.4 percent of the selfies.“
„Additionally, young females‘ selfies more often use social-media-specific gender expressions like the ‚kissing pout,‘ implying seduction/sexualization, and the ‚faceless portrayal‘ (implying focus on the body solely), while young males‘ selfies more often contain ‚muscle presentation‘ (implying strength),“ they add.
Aus der Besprechung innerhalb der Studie:
The study revealed that Instagram selfies reproduce traditional gender stereotypes and do so even to a larger extent than magazine adverts. Selfies produced and published by young females more often use visual codes of subordination defined by Goffman (1979) and Kang (1997): feminine touch, lying posture, imbalance, withdrawing gaze, loss of control, and body display. Additionally, young females‘ selfies more often use social-media-specific gender expressions like the kissing pout implying seduction/sexualisation and the faceless portrayal (implying focus on the body solely), while young males‘ selfies more often contain muscle presentation (implying strength). All gender effects were statistically significant with small to medium effect sizes. Comparing the degree of gender stereotyping in selfies with magazine adverts, the selfies turned out to be even more stereotypical than the adverts in four of six categories (feminine touch, imbalance, withdrawing gaze, loss of control), while ads were more stereotypical than selfies in two categories (lying posture and body display).
User-generated content obviously does not automatically lead to a reduction in stereotypical gender portrayal as was clearly demonstrated by the presented content analysis of Instagram selfies. Why is that the case? Gender stereotypes observed in mass media might be adopted by media users (as predicted by cultivation theory) and might be imitated or even exaggerated by young people in their selfies on Instagram and other social media sites. In addition to the influence of advertising and other mass media content on adolescents‘ selfie production, Instagram users‘ selfsocialization needs to be taken into consideration: Existing gender stereotypical Instagram selfies might be imitated by other Instagram selfie producers. However, further research is necessary to test these causal explanations.
Da finde ich die Schlussworte der „Besprechung einer anderen Besprechung“ ganz passend:
Of course, since this is the reliably liberal Pacific Standard, the conclusion that reporter Tom Jacobs draws isn’t that there could be genuine differences between the sexes that the „gender stereotypes“ promoted in selfies might accurately reflect. And that advertisers merely cater to those sex differences because they want to sell products.
Oh, no–heaven forbid! Jacobs concludes instead that the „media,“ including the advertising media, are so subtly and diabolically manipulative that they have managed to implant gender stereotypes so deeply within the brains of women that women do a better job of promoting the stereotypes than the ads themselves:
In other words, if you want to be popular, you portray yourself the way the your peers are portraying themselves—the rules for which they apparently absorbed from advertising.
It’s another example of how media imagery can mess with our minds.
Because women are so easily brainwashed. But wait! Isn’t that yet another gender stereotype?
Es ist eigentlich naheliegend, dass solche Bilder auf bestimmte evolutionär entstandene Signale zurückgreifen, die sie dann in ihrem Sinne ausnutzen. Und das die Medien und die Werbung das genau so macht. Schade, dass dieser Gedanke da gar nicht erwähnt wird.