Eine interessante Studie behandelt die unterschiedlichen Leistungen von Männern und Frauen als Rechtsanwälte:
This paper documents and studies the gender gap in performance among associate lawyers in the United States. Unlike other high-skilled professions, the legal profession assesses performance using transparent measures that are widely used and comparable across firms: the number of hours billed to clients and the amount of new client revenue generated. We find clear evidence of a gender gap in annual performance with respect to both measures. Male lawyers bill ten percent more hours and bring in more than twice the new client revenue than do female lawyers. We demonstrate that the differential impact across genders in the presence of young children and differences in aspirations to become a law firm partner account for a large share of the difference in performance. We also show that accounting for performance has important consequences for gender gaps in lawyers’ earnings and subsequent promotion. Whereas individual and firm characteristics explain up to 50 percent of the earnings gap, the inclusion of performance measures explains a substantial share of the remainder. Performance measures also explain a sizeable share of the gender gap in promotion.
Männliche Rechtsanwälte hängen sich also mehr rein, sie stellen 10% mehr Stunden in Rechnung und bringen doppelt soviel Umsatz mit neuen Mandanten in die Firma. Nach der Kurzzusammenfassung sind Gründe dafür die unterschiedlichen Auswirkungen von Kindern und die unterschiedliche Hoffnung Partner zu werden.
Gegeneinwände wären hier: Die Frauen haben es schwerer neue Mandanten anzuwerben, weil man ihnen als Frauen nicht zutraut und deswegen begraben sie auch gleich ihre Pläne jemals Partner zu werden, weswegen sie sich eher auf die Kinder konzentrieren. Das wäre dann aber gleichzeitig eine sich selbst erfüllende Prophezeiung, da es dann nur folgerichtig wäre, die männlichen Kollegen vorzuziehen. Allerdings ist der Unterschied so groß eben auch nicht und die unterschiedlichen Ambitionen bestehen weit vorher.
Aus der Besprechung:
We examined gender differences in performance among high-skilled individuals. Our focus was on the legal profession, which allowed us to draw on well-defined and homogeneous measures of workplace performance. We found large gender gaps in workplace performance and that these gaps were consequential for the gender gaps in earnings and career advancement.
We also explored three main hypotheses to explain gender gaps in performance:
- (i) factors correlated with possible discrimination in the workplace;
- (ii) the presence of children in the household, particularly young children; and
- (iii) career-concern factors.
Possible channels of discrimination in law firms —whereby, for instance, senior lawyers (i.e., law-firm partners) could interfere with performance— do not seem to explain the performance gaps. While the presence of pre-school children in the household contributes, in part, to the gaps in performance, it is not the only key determinant. Aspirations to become a partner, which are likely to capture more general career concerns, explain an important share of the gender gap. This continues to hold even after taking into account contemporaneous reverse causality concerns by predicting current aspirations to become a partner using measures that are correlated with aspirations but pre-date the lawyers’ time in the firm or in the legal profession.
Gender differences exist in other dimensions, such as area of specialization, time spent networking, and time spent working on weekends. While these factors influence performance, they do not appear to explain the gender gaps in performance. The gender gaps in performance have substantial consequences for gender gaps in earnings and promotion. Traditionally, the lack of data on workplace performance, especially in skilled or non-manual jobs, would leave it to speculation whether gender gaps in career outcomes might be explained by difference in performance. We demonstrate that a considerable share of gender gaps in earnings and promotion to partnership in the legal profession can be explained by including direct measures of workplace an important omitted variable: performance.
One potential implication of these results is that gender-based inequality in earnings and career outcomes might not decrease in the near future and could even increase due to the growing number of high-skilled workers who are explicitly compensated based on performance.
We demonstrate that a number of factors potentially reflecting discrimination within the firm do not seem to be important determinants of gender gaps in performance. However, there may be effects of social norms that affect workers’ aspiration early in their lives. An important next step would therefore be to examine in greater detail why career aspirations and the effects of raising children differ across gender and affect even the most elite professional men and women.
Die einfache Antwort „es sind eben die männlichen Privilegien und die Diskrimierung der Frauen“ scheint mir hier insofern nicht zu ziehen. Die Männer zeigen mehr Einsatz und wollen auch eher Karriere machen, die Frauen scheinen eher eine gewisse Work-Life-Balance anzustreben.