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Dr Devendra Singh hat einen großen Teil seiner Forschungszeit auf Schönheitsideale, dort insbesondere das Hüft-Taille-Verhältnis und Schlankheit verwendet.
Hier ein paar seiner Studien:
Evidence is presented showing that body fat distribution as measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is correlated with youthfulness, reproductive endocrinologic status, and long-term health risk in women. Three studies show that men judge women with low WHR as attractive. Study 1 documents that minor changes in WHRs of Miss America winners and Playboy playmates have occurred over the past 30–60 yrs. Study 2 shows that college-age men find female figures with low WHR more attractive, healthier, and of greater reproductive value than figures with a higher WHR. In Study 3, 25- to 85-yr-old men were found to prefer female figures with lower WHR and assign them higher ratings of attractiveness and reproductive potential. It is suggested that WHR represents an important bodily feature associated with physical attractiveness as well as with health and reproductive potential. A hypothesis is proposed to explain how WHR influences female attractiveness and its role in mate selection.
The western consensus is that obese women are considered attractive by Afro-Americans and by many societies from nonwestern developing countries. This belief rests mainly on results of nonstandardized surveys dealing only with body weight and size, ignoring body fat distribution. The anatomical distribution of female body fat as measured by the ratio of waist to hip circumference (WHR) is related to reproductive age, fertility, and risk for various major diseases and thus might play a role in judgment of attractiveness. Previous research (Singh 1993a, 1993b) has shown that in the United States Caucasian men and women judge female figures with feminine WHRs as attractive and healthy. To investigate whether young Indonesian and Afro-American men and women rate such figures similarly, female figures representing three body sizes (underweight, normal weight, and overweight) and four WHRs (two feminine and two masculine) were used. Results show that neither Indonesian nor Afro-American subjects judge overweight figures as attractive and healthy regardless of the size of WHR. They judged normal weight figures with feminine WHRs as most attractive, healthy, and youthful. The consensus on women’s attractiveness among Indonesian, Afro-American, and U.S. Caucasian male and female subjects suggests that various cultural groups have similar criteria for judging the ideal woman’s shape.
Two studies were conducted to examine the role of male body shape (as defined by waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]) in female mate choice. In Study 1, college-age women judged normal-weight male figures with WHR in the typical male range as most attractive, healthy, and possessing many positive personal qualities. In Study 2, 18–69 year old women rated normal-weight male figures with differing WHRs and purported income for casual (having coffee) to most-committed (marriage) relationships. All women, regardless of their age, education level, or family income, rated figures with WHRs in the typical male range and higher financial status more favorably. These findings are explained within an evolutionary mate selection context.
Two studies were conducted to determine the relative role played by overall body fat and body fat distribution as indicated by the measure of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in determining female perceived attractiveness and associated personality attributes. Contrary to popular belief, thin female figures were neither perceived most attractive nor assigned many desirable personality traits, except youthfulness. The measure of body fat distribution, the WHR, was found to be the critical variable associated with attractiveness. Normal weight female figures with low WHR were judged to be most attractive and were assigned many desirable qualities.
Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of ordinarily bilaterally symmetrical traits in humans has been proposed to indicate developmental anomaly. Recent research has shown that individuals with minimal FA are judged to be attractive, and preferred as sexual partners (Thornhill and Gangestad 1993). Waist-to-hip ratios (WHR) have been also shown to reflect health and reproductive capability of woman and those with low WHRs are judged more attractive and healthy (Singh 1993a,b). The present study examines the relative roles of WHR and FA in female breasts in judgments of female attractiveness, health, and desirability for short-term and long-term relationships. Male college students were asked to judge attractiveness of female figures that differed in WHR (high and low) and breast symmetry (none, low, or high). In the first test, paired comparison method was used in which each figure was paired one at a time with all other figures. In the second test, subjects examined all figures simultaneously, estimated their age, and rated each figure for attractiveness, feminine looks, health, overall degree of body symmetry, and willingness to engage in short- and long-term relationship. Results from both tests show that figures with low WHRs were judged to be more attractive than figures with high WHRs, regardless of their degree of breast asymmetry. The figure with low WHR and symmetrical breasts was judged to be most attractive and youngest of all other figures. It appears that men use both WHR and breast asymmetry in judging attractiveness and being willing to develop romantic relationships. It is proposed that WHR and breast asymmetry may signal different aspects of overall female mate quality.
Morphological features such as overall body fat, body fat distribution, as measured by waist-to-hip ratio, breast size, and hip width have been proposed to influence female attractiveness and desirability. To determine how the variations of these morphological features interact and affect the judgment of female age, attractiveness, and desirability for romantic relationships, two studies were conducted. In Study 1, college-age men rated female figures differing in body weight, waist-to-hip ratio, and breast size for age, attractiveness, health, and desirability for short-and long-term relationships. Female figures with slender bodies, low waist-to-hip ratios, and large brasts were rated as most attractive, feminine looking, healthy, and desirable for casual and long-term romantic relationships. In Study 2, female figures with similar body weight and waist-to-hip ratios but differing hip widths and breast sizes were rated for the same attributes as in Study 1. Female figures with large breasts and narrow hips were rated as most youthful, attractive, and desirable for casual and long-term romantic relationships. It seems that larger body size, a high waist-to-hip ratio, and larger hips make the female figure appear older, unattractive, and less desirable for engaging in romantic relationships. Discussion focuses on the functional significance of interactions among various morphological features in determining female attractiveness.
Interrelationships of female body fat distribution as measured by the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), overall body size, perceived attractiveness, youthfulness, health, and need to lose weight were investigated. Drawings showing thin females with high WHRs and heavier females with low WHRs were presented to college-age women with low and high scores on the Restrained Eating Scale (Herman & Polivy. . Obesity [pp. 208–225]. Philadelphia: Saunders) and men who ranked figures for various attributes. Female subjects, regardless of their eating style, as well as male subjects, judged heavier female target figures with low WHRs as more attractive and healthier than thinner figures with higher WHRs. The rankings for youthfulness and need to lose weight were not systematically affected by the size of the WHR. Female subjects perceived heavier female target figures with low WHR to represent ideal female figures. Female subjects with a restrained eating style felt their own body was not similar to idealized female figures and expressed unhappiness with their body shape; this was not true of unrestrained eaters. It is proposed that female attractiveness and ideal female shape may be more influenced by WHR than overall body size
A fundamental assumption of adaptive explanations of female attractiveness is that bodily features that males judge as attractive reliably signal youthfulness, healthiness, and fertility or female mate value. One of the bodily features, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), is a reliable indicator of a female’s reproductive age, sex hormone profi le, parity and risk for various diseases. Systematic variation in the size of WHR also systematically affects the judgment of female attractiveness, healthiness, and youthfulness. This article summarizes recent findings about the relationship between female’s WHR and various factors affecting reproductive capability and risk for diseases. Research on the relationship between attractiveness and WHR is discussed in light of some methodological objections to previous research. Finally, cross-cultural and historical data are presented that suggest that the relationship between WHR and female attractiveness is not culture-specifi c and not inculcated by modern Western fashion dictates or media.
In women of reproductive age, a gynoid body fat distribution as measured by the size of waist–hip ratio (WHR) is a reliable indicator of their sex hormone profile, greater success in pregnancy and less risk for major diseases. According to evolutionary mate selection theory, such indicators of health and fertility should be judged as attractive. Previous research has confirmed this prediction. In this current research, we use the same stimulus for diverse racial groups (Bakossiland, Cameroon, Africa; Komodo Island, Indonesia; Samoa; and New Zealand) to examine the universality of relationships between WHR and attractiveness. As WHR is positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), we controlled BMI by using photographs of women who have gone through micrograft surgery for cosmetic reasons. Results show that in each culture participants selected women with low WHR as attractive, regardless of increases or decreases in BMI. This cross-cultural consensus suggests that the link between WHR and female attractiveness is due to adaptation shaped by the selection process.
Attractiveness conveys reliable information about a woman’s age, health, and fertility. Body fat distribution, as measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), is a reliable cue to a woman’s age, health, and fertility, and affects judgment of women’s attractiveness. WHR is positively correlated with overall body weight or body mass index (BMI). Some researchers have argued that BMI, rather than WHR, affects judgments of female attractiveness. To evaluate the role of WHR, independent of BMI, we secured photographs of pre- and post-operative women who have undergone micro-fat grafting surgery. In this surgery, surgeons harvest fat tissue from the waist region and implant it on the buttocks. Post-operatively, all women have a lower WHR but some gain weight whereas others lose body weight. Results indicate that participants judge post-operative photographs as more attractive than pre-operative photographs, independent of post-operative changes in body weight or BMI. These results indicate that WHR is a key feature of women’s attractiveness.
Bei Erzählmirnix auf dem Fettlogikblog gab es noch einen Hinweis auf diese Studie mit diesen Grafiken, die ich direkt klaue:
Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated.
Die Grafiken daraus: