Eine interessante Studie betrachtet Geschlechterunterschiede im Bereich Kooperation:
Although it is commonly believed that women are kinder and more cooperative than men, there is conflicting evidence for this assertion. Current theories of sex differences in social behavior suggest that it may be useful to examine in what situations men and women are likely to differ in cooperation. Here, we derive predictions from both sociocultural and evolutionary perspectives on context-specific sex differences in cooperation, and we conduct a unique meta-analytic study of 272 effect sizes—sampled across 50 years of research— on social dilemmas to examine several potential moderators. The overall average effect size is not statistically different from zero (d – 0.05), suggesting that men and women do not differ in their overall amounts of cooperation. However, the association between sex and cooperation is moderated by several key features of the social context: Male–male interactions are more cooperative than female–female interactions (d 0.16), yet women cooperate more than men in mixed-sex interactions (d – 0.22). In repeated interactions, men are more cooperative than women. Women were more cooperative than men in larger groups and in more recent studies, but these differences disappeared after statistically controlling for several study characteristics. We discuss these results in the context of both sociocultural and evolutionary theories of sex differences, stress the need for an integrated biosocial approach, and outline directions for future research.
Im Ganzen also relativ kleine Unterschiede. Männer sind etwas besser unter sich (vielleicht eben, weil keiner um die Frauen konkurriert), Frauen etwas besser in gemischten Gruppen (vielleicht auch weil ihnen mehr Kooperation angeboten wird als in reinen Frauengruppen).
Aus der Besprechung:
Sex differences in cooperation are perhaps better understood as a function of both evolutionary and cultural processes. Although a full theoretical integration of these perspectives is beyond the scope of this article (for previous attempts, see Archer, 1996, 2009; Kenrick et al., 2003), we briefly address two features of this integration and their importance for future research on sex differences. First, evolved psychological sex differences may constrain the influence of the current social environment. For example, sextypical adaptations may affect both the socialization process of boys and girls (Low, 1989) and the emergence of sex differentiated cooperative institutions (Kenrick & Luce, 2000; Kenrick, Trost, & Sundie, 2004). In this regard, an evolved male coalitional psychology explains why across all cultures there is an overrepresentation of men in business, politics, and warfare (Van Vugt, 2009; Wood & Eagly, 2002; Whyte, 1978) and why men are more cooperative especially under conditions of intergroup threat (Bugental & Beaulieu, 2009; Van Vugt et al., 2007; Yuki & Yokota, 2009) and in repeated interactions with the same partners (Benenson et al., 2011; Geary et al., 2003). In the absence of such ancestrally relevant cues, sex differences in cooperation are less likely to appear. Future research may extend this analysis by examining how cultural influences can exacerbate or diminish the influence of sex-typical adaptations for cooperation.
Second, values and behavior are influenced by cultural factors. Through cultural transmission processes, humans learn what is socially appropriate (D’Andrade, 1989), including stereotypical beliefs associated with sex roles. Two important cultural variables that may affect sex differences in cooperation are the family context (Belsky, Steinberg, & Draper, 1991; Flinn & Ward, 2005) and institutional structures (e.g., marriage and residence rules; Low, 1989). These cultural factors systematically affect socialization processes that may in turn reinforce or diminish the manifestation of sex differences in cooperation. Low’s (1989) crosscultural research shows that parents in patrilocal societies (a marriage rule specifying men and their brides reside among kinsmen after marriage, as such power is shared among male kin) teach boys to cooperate with each other and to obey authority figures, which facilitates the emergence of male cooperative groups headed by older men. In cultures in which male–male coalitions have less functional importance and male–female coalitions are more important (feminine cultures; Hofstede, 2001), socialization processes are likely to be less sex differentiated.
Also der Gedanke, dass wir bestimmte Veranlagungen haben, die je nach den Bedingungen verschieden ausgelebt werden. Das ist ja auch zu erwarten: Kulturen, in denen Koalitionen unter Männern höhere Bedeutung haben, werden insgesamt auch mehr Konkurrenz haben. Wenn Männerkonkurrenz und damit auch Männerbündnisse sich weniger lohnen, und in der statt dessen Bündnisse zwischen Männern und Frauen gefördert werden, dürfte es bei dem Bündnis weniger um Konkurrenz gegen andere gehen.