Ein interessanter Artikel zeigt Unterschiede in der Anzahl der publizierten Artikel zwischen weiblichen und männlichen Wissenschaftlern. Diese Grafik zeigt die Unterschiede:
Aus dem Text:
When a female scientist writes a paper, she is more likely to be first author than the average author on that paper. But she is less likely to be last author, writes far fewer papers and is especially unlikely to publish papers on her own. Because she writes fewer papers, she ends up more isolated in the network of scientists, with additional consequences for her career.
The average male scientist authors 45 percent more papers than the average female scientist; he authors more than twice as many solo papers, on which he is the only author. (Solo papers can look particularly impressive because the scientist gets all the credit for the work.) Sixty times as many multi-author papers with identifiable gender for all authors will have all male authors as all female authors; twice as many will have all male authors as anyfemale author
Also schon ein sehr deutlicher Unterschied:
Zu möglichen Gründen:
One female scientist I spoke with suggested that women may appear on fewer papers because their contributions are often ignored. “Some men get added to papers even if their contribution was cosmetic, yet women who contributed ideas (and perhaps even writing or data) are left out,” said the woman, who blogs pseudonymously as Female Science Professor.
Also im Endeffekt Diskrimierung. Die klassische unsichtbarer Frau, die unverdient den Lohn ihrer Arbeit nicht erhält.
Ein weiterer Erklärungsansatz:
Maria Mateen, a friend of mine and a psychology researcher at Stanford, offered another explanation for why men write more papers: They are more likely to be “principal investigators” (PIs), senior researchers who run their own labs. In many fields, PIs get their names on papers by default, usually as last author, because they provide funding or resources for the scientists who do most of the work. When I identified PIs in my data set (scientists who were last authors on at least three papers with four or more authors), they were indeed less likely to be women: 12 percent of PIs were women, as opposed to 17 percent of scientists overall. And these PIs wrote far more papers and more first-author papers as well. But though this effect may partially explain the gender discrepancy in publication counts, it probably does not fully explain it: When we compare male PIs to female ones, or male non-PIs to female non-PIs, the men still have more papers.
Also eine teilweise Erklärung.
Weiter heißt es dort:
Once we’ve identified the gender gaps, the next step is to explain them. How much of women’s underrepresentation is due to bias and how much to other factors? While it’s clear that gender bias in science exists, it’s hard to prove merely by examining publication data (though some convincing cases have been made). Other studies have shown that female scientists spend more time on non-research activities, like child-rearing and teaching, tend to work at institutions that emphasize teaching over research and are more likely to leave the workforce for family reasons. Social dynamics with male scientists may also affect female scientists detrimentally. Women also tend to cite themselves less, self-promote less, negotiate less and see smaller performance gains from competition. Wendy Cieslak, the former principal program director for nuclear weapons science and technology at Sandia National Laboratories, emphasized the importance of the confidence gap. “We often don’t recognize and accept that [it] is holding us back until much later in life, when we look back,” she said.
Da werden auch viele klassische Gründe genannt: Kinder, Bevorzugung von Tätigkeiten, die eher mit Menschen zusammenhängen, weniger Interesse an Status und Wettbewerb etc.