Eine interessante Studie behandelt Geschlechterunterschiede im Narzissmus:
Despite the widely held belief that men are more narcissistic than women, there has been no systematic review to establish the magnitude, variability across measures and settings, and stability over time of this gender difference. Drawing on the biosocial approach to social role theory, a meta-analysis performed for Study 1 found that men tended to be more narcissistic than women (d = .26; k = 355 studies; N = 470,846). This gender difference remained stable in U.S. college student cohorts over time (from 1990 to 2013) and across different age groups. Study 1 also investigated gender differences in three facets of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) to reveal that the narcissism gender difference is driven by the Exploitative/Entitlement facet (d = .29; k = 44 studies; N = 44,108) and Leadership/Authority facet (d = .20; k = 40 studies; N = 44,739); whereas the gender difference in Grandiose/Exhibitionism (d = .04; k = 39 studies; N = 42,460) was much smaller. We further investigated a less-studied form of narcissism called vulnerable narcissism—which is marked by low self-esteem, neuroticism, and introversion—to find that (in contrast to the more commonly studied form of narcissism found in the DSM and the NPI) men and women did not differ on vulnerable narcissism (d = −.04; k = 42 studies; N = 46,735). Study 2 used item response theory to rule out the possibility that measurement bias accounts for observed gender differences in the three facets of the NPI (N = 19,001). Results revealed that observed gender differences were not explained by measurement bias and thus can be interpreted as true sex differences. Discussion focuses on the implications for the biosocial construction model of gender differences, for the etiology of narcissism, for clinical applications, and for the role of narcissism in helping to explain gender differences in leadership and aggressive behavior. Readers are warned against overapplying small effect sizes to perpetuate gender stereotypes.
Aus einer Besprechung der Studie:
Based in these calculations, they found that by far, the widest gap between men and women was a feeling of entitlement (d = 29), which I’m guessing comes as a surprise to no woman anywhere. „This result suggests that compared with women, men are more likely to exploit others and to believe that they themselves are special and therefore entitled to privileges,” the team wrote in the Psychological Bulletin.
The second largest gap between the sexes was in the leadership/authority aspect of narcissism, which scored a d = 20. This means that compared to women, men were more likely to exhibit assertiveness, the motivation to lead, and a desire for more power over others, the researchers report.
But when it came to grandiose/exhibitionism aspect of narcism, the team found almost no difference between the sexes – d = 4. “In other words, both genders were almost equally likely to endorse characteristics consistent with vanity, exhibitionism, and self-absorption,“ the team writes.
Overall, they found a consistent gender difference in narcissism, with men scoring a quarter of a standard deviation higher in narcissism than the women (d = 26).
Männer zeigen also eher einen Narzissmus in dem Bereich „Habe ich dieses oder jenes verdient?“, was auch gut dazu passt, dass das „Imposter-Syndrom“ stärker bei Frauen verbreitet ist. Ebenso glauben sie eher Anführer oder eine Autorität zu sein.
Das alles passt sehr gut in die evolutionären Theorien, weil es für Männer eben aufgrund der Vorteile von Status und einer Führungsrolle günstiger ist, wenn sie diese haben wollen und sich für geeignet halten, selbst wenn sie dann eher scheitern. Insofern sind dann eben mehr Männer als Frauen auch häufiger bereit, mehr dafür zu tun, um die ihnen zustehende Rolle ausfüllen zu können.
Hier ist, wie man auch den Grafiken in der Studie entnehmen kann, kein absoluter Unterschied vorhanden, sondern bei Männern sind diese Merkmale etwas häufiger stärker ausgeprägt. Aber gerade wenn es um sehr aufwändige Führungspositionen geht, kann sich dann dieser Unterschied auswirken.