Die Metastudie von Meredith Chivers zu den Unterschieden in der Sexuellen Erregung und der sexuellen Erregung, die über bestimmte Messverfahren in den Genitalien gemessen werden kann, wird immer wieder als Beleg angeführt, dass Frauen sexuelle Erregung unterdrücken. Es handelt sich um diese Studie:
The assessment of sexual arousal in men and women informs theoretical studies of human sexuality and provides a method to assess and evaluate the treatment of sexual dysfunctions and paraphilias. Understanding measures of arousal is, therefore, paramount to further theoretical and practical advances in the study of human sexuality. In this meta-analysis, we review research to quantify the extent of agreement between self-reported and genital measures of sexual arousal, to determine if there is a gender difference in this agreement, and to identify theoretical and methodological moderators of subjective-genital agreement. We identified 132 peer- or academically-reviewed laboratory studies published between 1969 and 2007 reporting a correlation between self-reported and genital measures of sexual arousal, with total sample sizes of 2,505 women and 1,918 men. There was a statistically significant gender difference in the agreement between self-reported and genital measures, with men (r = .66) showing a greater degree of agreement than women (r = .26). Two methodological moderators of the gender difference in subjective-genital agreement were identified: stimulus variability and timing of the assessment of self-reported sexual arousal. The results have implications for assessment of sexual arousal, the nature of gender differences in sexual arousal, and models of sexual response.
Aus der Studie:
Examples of low subjective-genital agreement abound in both clinical and academic sexology. Some men report feeling sexual arousal without concomitant genital changes (Rieger, Chivers, & Bailey, 2005) and experimental manipulations can increase penile erection without affecting subjective reports of sexual arousal (Bach, Brown, & Barlow, 1999; Janssen & Everaerd, 1993). Similarly, some women show genital responses without reporting any experience of sexual arousal (Chivers & Bailey, 2005) and self-reported sexual arousal is subject to impression management, as in the greater reluctance among women high in sex guilt to report feeling sexually aroused (Morokoff, 1985). Thus, determining the extent of the agreement between self-reported and genital measures of sexual arousal has both practical and theoretical significance. Practically, the majority of researchers and clinicians who assess sexual arousal do not have access to measures of genital response and, therefore, often rely on self-report. Those who employ self-report measures would like to know the extent to which they are measuring the same response as clinicians or researchers who use genital measures and vice versa. Moreover, knowing the extent of the agreement between self-reported and genital measures of sexual arousal, and identifying moderators of this subjective-genital agreement, would inform our models of sexual response, our understanding of sexual dysfunctions, and psychometric methods to assess each aspect of sexual response. One of the most frequently suggested moderators of subjective-genital agreement is gender; studies of men tend to produce higher correlations between measures of subjective and genital sexual arousal than studies of women (for a narrative review, see Laan & Janssen, 2007). Two positions can be described regarding gender as a moderator of subjective-genital agreement. One position is that female and male sexual response systems are truly similar, but the lower concordance estimates observed among women are the result of methodological issues in these studies, such as differences in the assessment devices or procedures that are used. The other position accepts the gender difference in concordance as real, whether it is a result of fundamental differences in sexual response or the effects of learning and other environmental influences. Before we can determine which of these positions has merit, however, the size and direction of the gender difference in concordance must be clearly documented.
Männer haben also eine höhere Übereinstimmung zwischen der subjektiven Wahrnehmung der Erregung und der genital gemessenen Erregung. Woran das liegt soll untersucht werden.
Tatsächlich kommt die Studie zu dem Ergebnis, dass es sich eher nicht um eine erlernte Unterscheidung handelt:
Moderators derived from learning, attention, or information processing explanations did not account for the gender difference in concordance. Above, we suggested that learning or attention explanations would link concordance to number of stimulus trials, duration of stimuli, participant age, and whether participants were asked to assess their perceptions of genital change. We also suggested that an information processing explanation would link concordance to whether the sexual stimuli were self-generated fantasies, sexually explicit, or female-centered; participants were instructed to focus on their genital sensations or not; and subjective sexual arousal was assessed contiguously versus after the trial or at the end of the session. Contrary to these theoretically-derived predictions, the gender difference in concordance was still found when comparing visual and nonvisual modalities, female-centred versus typical sexual films, and erotic versus explicit sexual stimuli. Concordance estimates were not significantly or consistently related to number of stimulus trials, stimulus length, or female age. Only the timing of subjective sexual arousal assessment was significantly related to the gender difference in concordance. If the gender difference in concordance is robust, as the present data suggest, what then can explain it? The hypotheses we derived from learning and information processing theories were not supported, and methodological factors cannot fully account for men’s higher subjective-genital agreement (or women’s lower subjective-genital agreement). Our finding raises the question of whether low concordance is the norm in women, and what purpose, if any, concordance serves in human sexual functioning. We discuss possible explanations for low female concordance in the next section.
Die These, dass es durch einen sozialen Lernprozess zu den Abweichungen kommt, werden also nicht gestützt
Eine andere Erklärung, wäre, dass sexuelle Botschaften automatischer zu einer Reaktion in den Genitalien führen, die mit Erregung des Geistes schlicht nichts zu tun hat:
Other Explanations for Low Female Concordance Is Female Genital Response Reflexively Activated? Chivers (2005), Laan (1994), and van Lunsen and Laan (2004) have all speculated that female genital response is an automatic reflex that is elicited by sexual stimuli and produces vaginal lubrication, even if the woman does not subjectively feel sexually aroused. Reflexively activated genital response would result in lower concordance overall because genital vasocongestion is not necessarily accompanied by subjective sexual arousal. If female genital response (and thus vaginal lubrication) is indeed reflexively activated, one would expect genital responses to be observed even when women are exposed to nonpreferred sexual stimuli (i.e., sexual stimuli that they do not find subjectively appealing), and under conditions where sexual stimuli are presented subliminally. Recent research suggests that female genital response can be evoked by a broader array of sexual stimuli than can male genital response. With respect to sexual orientation, heterosexual women show substantial genital responses to both male and female sexual stimuli, whereas heterosexual men show greater genital responses to female stimuli and homosexual men show greater genital responses to male stimuli (Chivers et al., 2004, 2007; Chivers & Bailey, 2005; Peterson, Janssen, & Laan, in press; Suschinsky et al., 2009). Typically, an increase in genital response is evoked by these sexual stimuli even though women report little or no experience of feeling sexually aroused, resulting in lower concordance estimates than are typically found among men.
Es könnte also schlicht sein, dass der verstärkte Durchblutung der Genitalien nichts mit geistiger Erregung zu tun hat, sondern automatisch auf jedes sexuelle Signal hin erfolgt. Warum eine solche Abkoppelung sinnvoll sein kann, wird auch gleich danach angesprochen:
The reflexive activation of vaginal responding by sexual cues may serve a protective function for women. Female genital response entails increased genital vasocongestion, necessary for the production of vaginal lubrication, and can, in turn, reduce discomfort and the possibility of injury during vaginal penetration. Ancestral women who did not show an automatic vaginal response to sexual cues may have been more likely to experience injuries that resulted in illness, infertility, or even death subsequent to unexpected or unwanted vaginal penetration, and thus would be less likely to have passed on this trait to their offspring.
Es könnte also hier gerade eine gewollte Differenzierung zwischen vaginaler Durchblutung und geistiger Erregung erfolgen, die das ganze Messverfahren ungeeignet macht, da damit der gewünschte Zusammenhang gerade nicht festgestellt werde kann.
Es wäre für einen solche Mechanismus auch durchaus sinnvoll, wenn er bei nahezu allem sexuellen anspringt, da vielleicht die anderen sexuellen Szenen einen heterosexuellen Mann nicht so stark erregen (siehe die Studie) aber vielleicht das sehen solcher sexuellen Szenen und die Anwesenheit einer Frau, mit der er Sex haben könnte. Was dann eine entsprechende Vorbereitung durchaus günstig sein lassen kann.